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Net Operating Income


Net Operating Income (NOI) is a profitability measure used in the real estate industry to calculate the income generated by a property after considering operational costs. It is calculated by subtracting all operating expenses (like maintenance, repairs, and management costs) from the property’s gross income. It does not include taxes, depreciation, and interest expenses.


The phonetic transcription of “Net Operating Income” is /nɛt ˈɑː.pə.reɪ.tɪŋ ˈɪŋ.kʌm/.

Key Takeaways

  1. Net Operating Income – also known as NOI, is a calculation used to analyze the profitability of income-generating real estate investments. It equals all revenue from the property, minus all reasonably necessary operating expenses.
  2. It’s important to note that NOI is a before-tax figure, appearing on a property’s income and cash flow statement, that excludes principal and interest payments on loans, capital expenditures, depreciation, and amortization.
  3. NOI is a long-term profitability measure, often used by real estate professionals throughout a property’s hold period to evaluate performance. It’s essential for determining the value of the property, calculation of various rates of return, and for securing financing.


Net Operating Income (NOI) is a crucial metric in the business and finance field as it provides an overview of a company’s operational profitability. It’s calculated by deducting operating expenses from the gross operating income. NOI excludes factors like taxes, interest payments, depreciation, and other non-operational income or costs, offering a clear picture of how efficiently a business is operating. It’s an important indicator of a company’s financial health, as it illustrates the firm’s potential to generate income solely from its core operations. NOI is particularly essential for potential investors and creditors, as a higher NOI often means better efficiency, profitability, and the potential for growth.


Net Operating Income (NOI), a crucial concept in finance and business, primarily aims to gauge a company’s operational profitability. This measurement provides a clear snapshot of a company’s ability to generate income from its regular operations, stripping out costs associated with financing and taxes, as well as non-operational expenses such as depreciation and building maintenance. As such, NOI provides stakeholders with a robust understanding of a company’s core business performance. Investors and analysts often use NOI to compare the performance of different businesses within the same industry, as it eliminates factors like tax differences and capital structure variations. For property investments, landlords and real estate operators utilize NOI to evaluate the revenue potential after factoring in operating expenses. Furthermore, lenders use NOI to determine a company’s debt service coverage ratio, which measures the ability to repay its debt. Therefore, NOI serves as an essential performance benchmark and financial indicator in diverse contexts.


1. Real Estate Industry: A real estate investor purchases a rental property for $1,000,000. The investor receives $120,000 annually in rental income. The total operating expenses, such as property taxes, insurance, repair costs, property management, and advertising, amount to $30,000 per year. The Net Operating Income (NOI) is calculated by subtracting these expenses from the rental income, which would be $120,000 – $30,000 = $90,000.2. Retail Business: A large retail store has total sales of $2,000,000 for the fiscal year. It had operating expenses which include the cost of goods sold, salaries, rent and utilities amounting to $1,500,000. The Net Operating Income for the retail store would be calculated as $2,000,000 (sales income) – $1,500,000 (operating expenses) = $500,000.3. Manufacturing Industry: A car manufacturing company has a gross income of $200 million from the sale of its cars. The company’s operating expenses, including the cost of raw materials, labor costs, overhead, administrative expenses, and depreciation total to $150 million. The Net Operating Income for the company is calculated by subtracting the operating expenses from the gross income. Therefore, the company’s NOI is $200 million – $150 million = $50 million.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Net Operating Income?

Net Operating Income, often abbreviated as NOI, is a financial term that is used to measure the profitability of income-generating real estate investments. It equals all revenue from the property, minus all reasonably necessary operating expenses.

How is Net Operating Income calculated?

The formula to calculate Net Operating Income is: Gross Potential Income – Operating Expenses = Net Operating Income. It does not include taxes, capital expenditures, debt service, or depreciation.

What is included in operating expenses?

Operating expenses can include costs such as property management fees, utilities, repairs and maintenance, property taxes, insurance, and other related costs.

Why is Net Operating Income important?

Net Operating Income is a key metric used by real estate investors and financial institutions to determine the value of a property, its profitability, and its potential return on investment.

Can Net Operating Income be negative?

Yes, Net Operating Income can be negative if the operating expenses exceed the total income generated from the property.

Does Net Operating Income include mortgage payments?

No, Net Operating Income does not include debt service or mortgage payments. It strictly includes the income and expenses related to the operation of the property.

What is a good Net Operating Income?

A good Net Operating Income can vary widely depending on factors such as the location of the property, the type of property, and the local market conditions. However, in general, a positive Net Operating Income is seen as a good sign as it indicates that the property is generating more income than it costs to operate.

How can I increase my property’s Net Operating Income?

Property owners can increase their NOI by either increasing the income generated from the property (by raising rents, for example) or by decreasing the operating expenses (such as reducing maintenance costs or managing the property more efficiently).

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