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Gordon Growth Model


The Gordon Growth Model is a method used in finance to calculate the intrinsic value of a stock, assuming the stock will pay consistent dividends that will grow at a steady rate indefinitely. This model is named after economist Myron J. Gordon. It takes into consideration the dividend per share, the growth rate of dividends, and the required rate of return by investors.


The phonetics of the keyword “Gordon Growth Model” would be: “ɡɔːrdən ɡroʊθ ˈmɑːdəl”

Key Takeaways

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  1. The Gordon Growth Model, also known as the Dividend Discount Model, is a simplified valuation method used to determine the intrinsic value of a company’s stock based on its future series of dividends that grow at a constant rate.
  2. It is a useful model for firms that are in the stable growth phase where dividends are expected to be sustainably predictable over the long term. Thus, it’s not applicable or less accurate for companies that have uncertain or inconsistent dividend payment records.
  3. The model relies heavily on assumptions – growth rate and discount rate. If the assumptions are incorrect or dramatically change, the valuation can be significantly untrue. This suggests that though the model is easy to use, it’s accuracy can only be as good as the assumptions made.

“`Please note that this is a simplified understanding, and a comprehensive study or professional advice may provide a deeper understanding.


The Gordon Growth Model is crucial in the business and finance field as it allows investors, analysts, and companies to calculate and predict the intrinsic value of a stock based on its future dividends that grow at a constant rate. This model is extremely valuable when evaluating companies that pay regular dividends and are stable with predictable growth rates. By comparing the result of the Gordon Growth Model to a stock’s current market value, individuals can gain insight into whether a stock is overvalued or undervalued, thereby assisting in the decision-making process for investments. As such, it is essential in financial planning, investment strategizing, and risk management.


The Gordon Growth Model is a significant tool used in business and finance for calculating the intrinsic value of a company’s stock. Its primary purpose is to assist investors and financial analysts in determining if a company’s stock is overvalued or undervalued, thereby influencing investment decisions. The model’s strength lies in its simplicity and its ability to forecast stock prices based on the concept of a perpetuity series in Mathematics. The variables considered in this model are the expected dividend per share one year from now, the cost of capital or the required rate of return, and the growth rate of dividends. Beyond just price valuation, the Gordon Growth Model is used for various purposes. Having insights into a company’s future performance, it aids in strategic business planning, helping executives understand if their growth strategies will translate into tangible shareholder value. The model also serves as a benchmark for business owners to assess whether they should reinvest profits back into the business. Further, investors use it to compare the intrinsic value of the stock against the current market price to identify potential investment opportunities. However, it’s essential to note that the model makes some simplifying assumptions, like a constant dividend growth rate, which might not hold true in real-world scenarios, hence requiring careful interpretation of the results.


1. Dividend Yield in Stock Market: Investors and financial analysts use the Gordon Growth Model to value stocks based on their future dividends. For example, a large public company like Coca-Cola with consistent annual dividend can be evaluated using this model. The future dividends of the company, the investors required return, and the expected growth rate of the dividends are all used to estimate the intrinsic value of a single stock.2. Real Estate Investments: The Gordon Growth Model can be used to determine the value of income-generating property investments. For instance, a real estate company might buy apartment buildings for the steady rental income they generate. This model can be used to estimate the fair value of the buildings based on their net operating income (rental income less expenses) and the expected growth in net operating income.3. Valuation of Tech Companies: The model is used to estimate the fair value of fast-growing technology companies. For example, an analyst might use the Gordon Growth Model to estimate the fair value of a company like Amazon or Google by projecting future free cash flows, determining a required rate of return, and estimating long-term growth rates. Keep in mind though, while the Gordon Growth Model can provide a starting point, it may be less accurate in these scenarios, as it assumes constant growth rates which may not be always accurate, particularly with high-growth tech companies.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the Gordon Growth Model?

The Gordon Growth Model, also known as the dividend discount model, is a method of valuing a company’s stock price based on the assumption that the company’s dividends will continue to grow at a constant rate indefinitely.

Who created the Gordon Growth Model?

The Gordon Growth Model was developed by economist Myron J. Gordon.

How is the Gordon Growth Model calculated?

The Gordon Growth Model is calculated using the formula: P = D / (r – g), where: P = the price of the stockD = the annual dividends per share expected in the next yearr = the company’s cost of capital or required rate of returng = the constant growth rate of dividends

Is the Gordon Growth Model applicable to all companies?

No, the Gordon Growth Model is best suited for companies that are mature, dividend-paying and exhibit stable growth rates. It is less accurate for companies with fluctuating growth rates or those that do not pay dividends.

What are the main limitations of the Gordon Growth Model?

The main limitations of the Gordon Growth Model are its assumptions that dividends will grow at a constant rate indefinitely and that the company’s cost of capital is higher than this growth rate. These assumptions may not hold true for all companies, particularly in volatile markets and for companies in their growth phase.

Can the Gordon Growth Model be used in stock valuation?

Yes, the Gordon Growth Model is often used by investors to value stocks by predicting future dividends and discounting them back to present value.

How reliable is the Gordon Growth Model?

The reliability of the Gordon Growth Model depends on the accuracy of the assumptions made. If a company’s growth rate or dividends fluctuate significantly, the model may not provide an accurate estimate of a stock’s intrinsic value. Conversely, for stable, dividend-paying companies, the model can prove quite reliable.

How does the Gordon Growth Model handle risk?

The Gordon Growth Model incorporates risk through the required rate of return (r) in the formula. A higher required rate of return indicates a higher perceived risk, and will lower the calculated price of the stock.

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