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Dumping is a negative financial term primarily used in the context of international trade. It refers to the practice where a country or company exports a product at a price that is lower in the foreign market than the price charged in the domestic market. This is often done to increase market share in the foreign market or to dispose of surplus goods.


The phonetic spelling of the word “Dumping” is: /ˈdʌmpɪŋ/

Key Takeaways

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  1. Dumping is a process where a company exports a product at a lower price than it is sold in the home market or at a price below the cost of production.
  2. Consequences – It can have negative impacts on domestic industries of the importing countries. While it may benefit consumers in the short term due to lower prices, it could lead to domestic industries getting outcompeted and causing job losses in the long run.
  3. Anti-Dumping Duties – Governments often impose anti-dumping duties, which are tariffs on certain imported goods, in order to protect domestic businesses. These duties raise the price of the imported goods to level the playing field.

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Dumping is a critical term in business and finance as it refers to a form of international price discrimination, where a manufacturer from one country exports a product to another country at a price lower than the domestic market price. This practice is often used to gain a competitive edge in foreign markets and can significantly impact global trade dynamics. While it can have short-term benefits for the consumers in the importing country due to lower prices, it can also lead to significant harm to domestic industries leading to job losses and business closures. Moreover, it could potentially result in predatory pricing, where foreign companies drive local companies out of business then raise prices. Therefore, governments often intervene to prevent dumping practices via various trade remedies such as anti-dumping duties. It’s crucial to understand this concept due to its far-reaching implications on international trade, competitiveness, and economic welfare.


In the context of international trade, dumping is a strategy employed by companies for gaining an edge in a foreign market. The primary purpose is to gain market share by selling their products at a lower price than the cost of production, or lower than in their home country. By setting artificially low prices, a manufacturer aims to outprice local competition, potentially driving them out of business, or discourage new competitors from entering the market. While this may seem advantageous for the dumping company, it is mainly a short-term strategy. It might lead to an initial surge in market share, but it can harm the company in the long term as continuous underpricing can escalate into financial losses. Moreover, it can disrupt the market dynamics, impacting local industries and causing job losses. For this reason, many countries enforce anti-dumping laws to protect their domestic industries, levying duties on goods found to be dumped into their markets.


Dumping refers to the practice of selling products in a foreign market at prices that are lower than those in the domestic market or lower than the cost of production. Here are three real-world examples:1. Chinese Raw Steel: One of the most common examples of dumping involves Chinese raw steel. In an effort to increase its global market share, China has often been accused of dumping steel into European and American markets, selling it at prices below production cost. This has led to significant discussions at the World Trade Organization and has resulted in a series of tariffs being levied against China to counteract the impact of such dumping activities.2. Japanese Cars in the US: During the 1980s, Japan was accused of dumping automobiles into the United States’ market at prices below their actual value. This led to the US government imposing import quotas and tariffs on Japanese cars to protect the American auto industry from unfair competition.3. Chinese Solar Panels: In recent years, China has been accused of dumping solar panels in the US and European markets. Chinese producers, supported by government subsidies, were selling solar panels below their production cost, thus causing losses to manufacturers in the US and Europe. This led the US and the EU to impose anti-dumping duties on Chinese solar panels.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is dumping in financial terms?

Dumping refers to the process where a company or a country exports a product at a price that is lower in the foreign importing market than the price in the exporter’s domestic market. This strategy can help a company increase market shares or get rid of excess stocks.

Is dumping illegal?

While dumping itself is not illegal, it is considered a controversial practice in international trade. Many nations and international trade organizations have anti-dumping regulations to protect domestic industries from unfair competition.

What is the impact of dumping on the domestic and foreign market?

Dumping can lead to significant economic impacts. At first, it may lower prices in the foreign market and increase competition. However, it can harm the domestic industry in the foreign market by undercutting prices, and in the long run, it can create a monopoly in the foreign market after driving competitors out of business.

How can a country protect itself from dumping?

Most countries protect themselves from dumping through anti-dumping duties, which are taxes imposed on specific goods imported from specific countries. These are sanctioned under the World Trade Organization (WTO) regulations if a case of dumping is proven.

What are anti-dumping measures?

Anti-dumping measures are steps taken by a government to protect its domestic industry. They usually include the imposition of duties or tariffs on the dumped goods.

How is a dumping case proven?

To prove a dumping case, evidence must show that the imported product is being sold at a lower price than in its domestic market, and this is causing or threatening to cause material injury to the domestic industry in the importing country.

Does dumping affect consumers?

At first, consumers may benefit from dumping because it can lead to lower prices for certain goods. But over time, if dumping destroys domestic industry competitors, it can lead to monopolies and increased prices.

What role does the World Trade Organization play in dumping issues?

The WTO provides a legal framework to deal with dumping issues. It allows countries to take actions against dumping, like imposing duties, if it harms domestic businesses. However, they must objectively demonstrate that dumping is taking place and causing harm.

Related Finance Terms

  • Predatory Pricing
  • Import Tariff
  • International Trade
  • Anti-Dumping Duties
  • Trade Barriers

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