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World Bank


The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to poorer countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects. It seeks to reduce poverty by offering these countries financing options for developmental projects such as infrastructure, health, or education. It is made up of two institutions: the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and the International Development Association.


The phonetic pronunciation of “World Bank” is: /wɜːrld bæŋk/

Key Takeaways

  1. The World Bank is an international organization dedicated to providing financial and technical assistance to developing countries for developmental projects (like infrastructure, health, education) that are expected to improve the economic prospects and quality of life for people in those countries.
  2. It is a group of five international organizations: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The International Development Association, The International Finance Corporation, The Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, and The International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes. The first two are commonly referred to as ‘The World Bank’.
  3. The main goal of the World Bank is to reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries. To achieve this, it provides loans at very low-interest rates and grants to low and middle-income countries.


The World Bank is an important financial institution that provides funding and expertise to developing countries for capital programs such as infrastructure development, health, and education. It plays a critical role in the global economy by aiding economic progress and stability in some of the world’s poorest areas. Additionally, it seeks to reduce poverty by promoting foreign investment, international trade, and fostering sustainable economic growth. Its efforts are particularly significant in areas suffering from economic instability, conflict, or natural disasters where it provides critical financial support, guidance, and crisis management solutions. Furthermore, the investments and policy advice of the World Bank significantly influence global economic practices and development strategies. Therefore, understanding the function of the World Bank is crucial in both domestic and international financial contexts.


The World Bank was established with the primary purpose of reducing poverty by providing loans and grants to low and middle-income countries for capital programs, i.e., infrastructure development like roads, bridges, schools, etc. This is carried out alongside several initiatives and programs to reform sectors such as education, healthcare, and agriculture. By funding development projects, the World Bank aims to uplift economies and improve the living standards of people in these developing nations. Furthermore, the World Bank also offers monetary assistance during times of urgent need or crisis. This could take the form of financial aid to countries hit by natural disasters or economy-wide collapse due to conflicts. Another important function of the World Bank involves sharing knowledge among the developing nations. The organization provides expert analyses, advice, and data on economic matters, to support countries in creating sound policies, enabling better decision making, and fostering sustainable economic growth.


1. Reconstruction of Europe and Japan after World War II: The World Bank was established in 1944 to help rebuild European nations that were devastated by the war. In addition to Europe, it also provided funds for the reconstruction of Japan. The bank provided monetary assistance for rebuilding infrastructures, hence boosting the economy of these war-torn nations.2. Health and Education services in India: The World Bank has been instrumental in offering financial support to improve the health and education sectors in India. For instance, in 2018, a loan agreement was signed between the Indian government and the World Bank for the implementation of the “Atal Bhujal Yojana,” a project geared towards managing ground water resources in seven important states of India.3. Energy Infrastructure in African countries: Many African countries have benefitted from World Bank funding in building critical infrastructure projects, particularly in the energy sector. One such instance is in Kenya, where the World Bank approved $180 Million in 2018 to strengthen the financial position of Kenya Electricity Generation Company Limited (KenGen) and help provide affordable and reliable electricity to households and businesses in the country.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the World Bank?

The World Bank is a international financial institution that provides loans and grants to the public and private sectors of low and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects, contributing to the reduction of poverty and supporting economic development.

Who owns the World Bank?

The World Bank is owned by its member countries. The voting power of each country is roughly based on the financial contributions made by them. The highest contributors are the United States, followed by Japan, China, and Germany.

When was the World Bank formed?

The World Bank was formed in July 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference.

How does the World Bank fund its loans?

The World Bank funds its loans by pooling resources from member countries and also by issuing bonds in the international financial markets.

What is the difference between the World Bank and the IMF (International Monetary Fund)?

While both the World Bank and IMF were created at the Bretton Woods Conference and aim to foster global monetary cooperation, they serve different purposes. The World Bank focuses on long-term economic development and poverty reduction, through providing technical and financial support for development projects, whereas the IMF aims to maintain international financial stability and helps countries facing balance of payment problems.

How does a country become a member of the World Bank?

Membership in the World Bank is open to all member countries of the International Monetary Fund (IMF). A country must first apply for membership to the IMF before it can apply to the World Bank.

What kind of projects does the World Bank fund?

The World Bank funds a wide range of development projects such as improving education, healthcare, public administration, infrastructure, and private sector development among others.

What is the role of the World Bank in developing countries?

The World Bank plays a critical role in developing countries by providing them with the financial and technical assistance they need for implementing development projects, like bridges, roads, schools, and so on. This support helps in the reduction of poverty and supports sustainable economic growth.

How is the World Bank’s performance measured?

The Bank’s performance is measured against its two main objectives: reducing poverty and enhancing shared prosperity. This includes tracking how funds are used, the successful implementation of projects, and evaluating the socio-economic impacts of these projects.

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