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Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)


The Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is a financial calculation that measures a company’s total cost of capital, considering the proportionate amounts of all types of financing used, including equity and debt. It is the average rate a company is expected to pay all its securities holders to finance its assets. WACC is essentially the minimum return a company needs on an existing asset base to satisfy its owners or creditors.


The phonetic pronunciation for ‘Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)’ is: “Wey-tid Av-er-ij Kost of Kap-i-tuhl (Dub-uhl-u-see-see)”

Key Takeaways

Here are the three main takeaways about the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC):

  1. Definition: WACC is a firm’s average after-tax cost of capital from all sources, including stocks, bonds and any other long-term debt. It represents the average rate a company expects to pay to finance its assets.

  2. Application: WACC is used by companies to discount future cash flows back to their present value and make investment decisions. A lower WACC indicates that a company obtains cheaper financing and thus, has higher valuation.

  3. Composition: WACC is calculated by considering the proportion of debt and equity in the company’s capital structure, the cost of equity and the after-tax cost of debt. The riskier the business, the higher the WACC due to the larger risk premium demanded by investors.


The Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is an essential concept in finance because it represents a firm’s average after-tax cost of capital from all sources, including equity and debt. WACC is critical in making investment decisions, strategy development, and financial performance evaluation. It provides a benchmark rate that a company must surpass to generate value for its investors, quantifying the risk associated with the firm’s capital structure. It is also used in discounted cash flow analysis to determine enterprise value and investment feasibility. Hence, understanding and optimizing WACC can lead to more informed investment decisions, better risk management, and increased value creation for stakeholders.


The purpose of the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) is primarily to measure the average rate of return that a company is expected to provide to all its investors, including equity owners and debt holders. Businesses use it to gauge the cost of funding their operations through different sources of capital, namely equity and debt. It provides a quantifiable metric that unifies the differing costs associated with these diverse financing avenues. Additionally, it offers insight into an organization’s financial health, as a lower WACC is indicative of reduced risk and improved investment attractiveness.The application of WACC extends to a multitude of financial analyses such as company valuation, investment appraisal, and capital budgeting. In capital budgeting decisions, for instance, WACC is used as the discount rate to determine the net present value of cash flows. Essentially, it helps assess whether certain investments or projects would create or destroy value for the company. On the other hand, in company valuation, WACC is applied as an essential component, given that the entity’s value is typically calculated by discounting future cash flows at WACC. Therefore, understanding the WACC of a business aids in comprehending its financing strategies and assessing its investment potentials.


1. Apple Inc.: Apple is a company with a diverse capital structure, incorporating long-term debt, common stock, and retained earnings. Each of these forms of capital contributions’ costs are calculated separately and then added together after being multiplied by their respective weights in the capital structure to get the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC). This provides a more comprehensive understanding of Apple’s overall cost of capital, as it accounts for the risk affiliated to each capital source.2. Amazon Inc.: Considering Amazon’s WACC can give an insight into the company’s financial health and strategy. As Amazon has a significant proportion of equity in their financial structure, it indicates a lower financial risk, resulting in a lower WACC. This makes Amazon more appealing for investors, as it signifies that the company has a lower actual cost of financing their operations and investments.3. Exxon Mobil: Exxon Mobil, a multinational oil and gas corporation, deals with a large proportion of debt specific to the oil and gas industry. Their WACC calculation would thus weigh more on the cost of debt, reflecting the considerable risk involved in the industry. This further influences the company’s investment and financial decisions. In an instance of high WACC implying higher risk, ExxonMobil might reconsider investing in new technology or expansion, as the expected returns might not exceed the WACC. In these ways, different companies utilize WACC to get clear insights into a more accurate cost of their capital and to drive their financial and investment decision-making process.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC)?

The Weighted Average Cost of Capital, or WACC, is the average rate of return a company is expected to pay its investors; the weights are the fraction of each financing source in the company’s total capital.

How is WACC used in business and finance?

WACC is primarily used by companies to determine the cost of their financing. By taking the weighted average, they can see how much interest the company has to pay for every dollar it finances.

How is the WACC calculated?

The WACC is calculated by multiplying the cost of each capital component by its proportional weight and then summing. It includes all sources of capital, including common stock, preferred stock, bonds, and other long-term debt.

Why is WACC important for investors?

The WACC is important for investors as it gives them a necessary computational understanding of whether or not investment might be profitable. It is also a critical element in investment decisions as it gives an idea about the total return required for an investment to break even.

What does a high WACC indicate?

A high WACC indicates that a company pays more to finance its assets. High WACC means higher risk, and investors will require more return on investment. Thus, it could be harder for the company to attract investors.

What does a low WACC signify?

A low WACC signifies that the cost for the company to finance its operations is relatively low. This is generally a positive sign, as the company pays less to finance its assets, allowing more profit to be returned to investors.

How can Variations in WACC affect business decisions?

Changes in WACC can significantly affect a business’s investment decisions. If the cost of capital increases, then the valuation of the project’s cash flows will decrease, making the investment less attractive. Conversely, a decrease in WACC increases the valuation of future cash flows resulting from the investment, making it potentially more lucrative.

What are the limitations of WACC?

WACC is based on historical data and hence might not always provide the most accurate cost of capital in the future. It includes assumptions which may have to be adjusted, requiring rigorous estimation procedures. Also, the WACC assumes that the firm’s financial structure remains the same, which may not always be the case.

Can WACC be negative?

While theoretically possible, a negative WACC is practically unrealistic because it implies that the company is being paid to borrow, which is highly unlikely. If the calculation results in a negative WACC, there might be an error in the input data or calculation.

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