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Voluntary Employees Beneficiary Association (VEBA)


A Voluntary Employees’ Beneficiary Association (VEBA) is a tax-exempt trust or corporation established to finance employee benefits. The primary purpose of a VEBA is to provide for or reimburse members for specific expenses, such as medical expenses, life insurance fees, education or training costs, and so forth. It is regulated by IRS Code Section 501(c)(9).


The phonetics for Voluntary Employees’ Beneficiary Association (VEBA) are:Voluntary : vuh-luhn-ter-ee Employees’ : ihm-ploy-eezBeneficiary : ben-uh-fish-uh-reeAssociation (VEBA) : uh-soh-shee-ey-shun (vee-ee-bee-ey)

Key Takeaways

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  1. Employee Benefits: The Voluntary Employees’ Beneficiary Association (VEBA) is a type of tax-exempt trust that provides various benefits to employees. These benefits can include items like life insurance, sick leave, accident insurance, and supplemental unemployment benefits. The VEBA is funded by contributions from either the employer or the employees themselves.
  2. Tax Exemptions: As a trust, a VEBA does not pay any taxes on its income or gains. Therefore, the investment growth and the income generated by the VEBA are tax-exempt. This benefits the employees, as the maximum amount of capital can be put to work providing benefits and less money is spent on taxes.
  3. Restrictions: Although a VEBA offers many advantages in the form of tax savings and a range of potential benefits, it also has a few restrictions. The IRS requires that the use of funds must solely benefit the employees and their beneficiaries. In addition, a VEBA must follow the non-discrimination rules, meaning that it can’t favor highly compensated employees too much.


The Voluntary Employees’ Beneficiary Association (VEBA) plays a significant role in the business and finance sector as it provides employee-funded benefits for various potential necessities such as medical expenses, life insurance, sick leave, and more. Its importance lies in the tax benefits it provides both to the employer and the employees. VEBA contributions are tax-deductible for the company and tax-free for the employees which makes it an attractive compensation benefit. Additionally, the funds in VEBA grow tax-free, providing a crucial source of funding for benefits. Offering a VEBA plan can also help to attract and retain employees. Therefore, VEBAs play a key role in ensuring worker welfare, reducing tax burdens, and serving as an effective tool in talent management.


The Voluntary Employees’ Beneficiary Association (VEBA) is a type of trust fund established to provide employees with certain benefits, most commonly life insurance, health insurance, disability insurance, severance pay, education assistance, and other similar benefits. Its central purpose is to offer tax advantages to employers and employees by contributing to a tax-exempt trust to cover employees’ benefits. These contributions by the employers are tax-deductible, and any profits generated by the investments in the VEBA are also tax-exempt, making it an attractive option for companies looking to reduce their overall tax burden.VEBAs are particularly useful in situations where employees need to fund post-retirement benefits, or when a company is required to pre-fund benefits due to a union contract or a corporate resolution. VEBAs also serve a vital role in enabling employees to continue to receive benefits if their employer goes out of business or in scenarios where the employer wants to offload the responsibility of managing certain benefits. In essence, the VEBA provides a secure and tax-efficient way for companies to ensure their employees are covered for specific benefits, even in times of financial uncertainty or change.


1. General Motors VEBA: In 2007, General Motors (GM) established a VEBA with the United Auto Workers (UAW). The GM VEBA covered healthcare costs for retired auto workers. GM originally funded the VEBA with approximately $30 billion and ownership rights in GM, which was struggling financially at that time. 2. Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company VEBA: Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company agreed to establish a VEBA for its workers in 2006. The company contributed $1 billion to the VEBA, which was to cover medical, prescription drug, dental, and other healthcare benefits for retirees and their eligible dependents.3. Allegheny Technologies Incorporated VEBA: Allegheny Technologies Incorporated signed an agreement in 2015 with the United Steelworkers Union to create a VEBA for current and future retired union employees and their families. The VEBA was aimed at providing health care benefits to the eligible members and was funded with initial seed money of $81 million, catering to approximately 8,500 individuals.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is a Voluntary Employees’ Beneficiary Association (VEBA)?

A Voluntary Employees’ Beneficiary Association (VEBA) is a type of tax-exempt trust used by an employer to fund health and life insurance, education expenses, and other employee benefits. It is established by a company for its employees in the United States under Section 501(c)(9) of the Internal Revenue Code.

How does a VEBA work?

Companies contribute to the VEBA trust on behalf of their employees. These contributions are tax-deductible for the company, and employees do not have to pay taxes on the benefits they receive from the trust.

Who is eligible to participate in a VEBA?

The eligibility to participate in a VEBA is typically defined by the terms of the plan established by the sponsoring employer. It usually includes current and retired employees, as well as their dependents.

What are the benefits of a VEBA?

A VEBA provides tax advantages to both the employer and employee. The employer contributions are tax-deductible and the benefits received by the employees from the plan are generally tax-free.

What types of benefits can a VEBA provide?

A VEBA can provide several types of benefits such as health insurance, life insurance, disability income, daycare expenses, education expenses, and retirement income.

Can the employees contribute to the VEBA?

No, typically only employers contribute to the VEBA. However, the rules can vary based on the terms defined by the sponsoring employer.

Can a VEBA be used in conjunction with other types of employee benefit plans?

Yes, a VEBA can be used in conjunction with other types of benefit plans. For example, a VEBA could be utilized alongside a 401(k) plan to provide a more comprehensive benefit package for employees.

How is a VEBA different from a Health Savings Account (HSA)?

While both a VEBA and HSA offer tax advantages for health-related expenses, they differ in key areas. The main difference is that VEBAs are funded by employers and benefits are generally tax-free for employees, while HSAs are owned and funded by individuals who can contribute pre-tax dollars to pay for eligible medical expenses.

Can a VEBA plan be terminated?

Yes, it can be terminated, but all remaining assets must be used for the benefit of the employees or returned to the employer, depending on the terms stated in the VEBA plan document.

Related Finance Terms

  • Employee Benefits
  • Non-profit Trust
  • Healthcare Reimbursement
  • Welfare Benefit Plan
  • Internal Revenue Code

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