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The Trilemma, also known as the Impossible Trinity, is a concept in international economics stating it’s impossible for a country to maintain all three of the following at the same time: a fixed foreign exchange rate, free capital movement, and an independent monetary policy. Essentially, a country must sacrifice one to achieve the other two. It provides a clear constraint on possible macroeconomic policies.


The phonetics of the keyword “Trilemma” is /traɪˈlɛmə/

Key Takeaways

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  1. The concept of Trilemma is a decision-making theory used in economics, social sciences, philosophy, and more, which suggests that out of three potential options, only two can be selected at the same time. It’s an analogy for predicaments that are faced when making tough decisions.
  2. The Mundell-Fleming Model, also known as the “Impossible Trinity” in international economics, is one of the most common examples of a Trilemma. It states that it’s impossible for a country to have all three of an independent monetary policy, free capital movement, and a fixed foreign exchange rate at the same time.
  3. A Trilemma also is commonly used to describe the problem faced between competing objectives like ‘good, cheap, and fast,’ where you can only pick two. For example, if a service is fast and cheap, it’s unlikely to be good. Or if it’s good and fast, it’s unlikely to be cheap.

“`Please be aware that Trilemma examples can vary based on the specific context or subject area it’s applied to.


Trilemma, a concept in economics, is crucial in the world of business and finance because it showcases the decision-making complications faced by economic policymakers in an open economy. According to the trilemma, also known as the impossible trinity, a country can only achieve two out of the three possible benefits: free capital mobility, exchange rate stability, and monetary independence. This means that if a country decides to achieve some specific economic goals, it will have to give up on some others. The trilemma illustrates the interconnectedness of national economies in the global ecosystem and highlights the necessity of strategizing and prioritizing economic policies. This understanding guides nations, corporations, and investors in making informed and more predictable economic decisions.


The concept of Trilemma in finance or economics is an indispensable decision-making tool. It is used to illustrate the complex interplay of three closely interlinked options or policies, out of which only two can be achieved simultaneously, thereby sacrificing the third. This theory helps to present financial or economic decisions in a viable and practical context, enabling policymakers, economists, and financial professionals around the world to comprehend the trade-offs that come with choosing two policy objectives among three interrelated ones.Moreover, trilemma is integral in macroeconomic policy making, particularly in the field of international economics, through the “impossible trinity” or the “open economy trilemma”. This theory postulates that it is impossible for a country to simultaneously maintain a fixed foreign exchange rate, free capital movement (an absence of capital controls), and an independent monetary policy. A country must give up one of these objectives to accomplish the other two. Understanding this trilemma helps governments and economic strategists frame regulations and strategies that balance the multifaceted objectives of economic stability, growth, and financial integration.


1. The Impossible Trinity or Monetary Policy Trilemma: In the sphere of international economics, this concept is often referred to as the “impossible trinity” or the “trilemma of international finance”. It states that it’s impossible for a country to have all three of the following at the same time: a fixed foreign exchange rate, free capital movement (absence of capital controls), and an independent monetary policy. For example, China has faced this trilemma. They have a relatively fixed exchange rate and they want to maintain control over their monetary policy. But they have had to impose various capital controls to reconcile these two aims.2. The Eurozone Trilemma: Within the Eurozone, member states face a trilemma between monetary stability, financial integration, and state sovereignty. For instance, Greece faced this trilemma during the 2010 debt crisis. As part of the Eurozone, it had monetary stability and financial integration but had to sacrifice some state sovereignty particularly over fiscal policies as part of the bailout conditions.3. The Brexit Trilemma: Brexit offers an example of political-economy trilemma. The UK was struggling to reconcile three conflicting goals: regulatory autonomy (the ability to set its own laws), economic integration with the EU (maintaining access to the single market), and the commitment to the Good Friday agreement (which implied no hard border between Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic). Post Brexit, it has been a real challenge for the UK to balance these elements. These examples underline the practical reality of the “trilemma” in economics and politics and how it forces a choice between competing objectives.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Trilemma in the finance and business context?

A trilemma, in the context of finance and business, is a complex situation that includes three upsetting, and usually contradictory, components or choices. A well-known example is the impossible trinity or the Mundell-Fleming model in economics, which states it is impossible for a country to guarantee freedom of capital movement, a fixed foreign exchange rate, and an independent monetary policy simultaneously.

What is the ‘impossible trinity’ or the ‘Mundell-Fleming model’?

The ‘impossible trinity’ , also known as the ‘Mundell-Fleming model’ , is a concept in international economics which states that it is impossible to have all three of the following at the same time: a stable foreign exchange rate, free capital movement (absence of capital controls), and an independent monetary policy.

How does a country solve the Trilemma in economics?

To solve the trilemma, a country must give up one of the three options. It can choose to give up the stability of the foreign exchange rate and allow the value of the currency to fluctuate in the foreign exchange market. Alternatively, it can implement capital controls to limit the free movement of capital. Lastly, it can choose to align its monetary policy to another country.

Can the trilemma situation occur in business scenarios?

Yes, trilemmas can occur in business scenarios as well. A common example is the project management trilemma, also known as the Triple Constraint. It states that a project cannot be cheap, fast, and good (high-quality) at the same time. One of these three aspects usually has to give.

What is the significance of understanding the concept of Trilemma in financial studies?

Understanding the concept of trilemma in financial studies helps policymakers and businesses make informed decisions under conflicting constraints. It provides a framework for comprehending the trade-offs involved and helps in crafting strategies that balance these opposing factors. It is particularly useful in the areas of international economics and project management.

Does Trilemma affect global financial stability?

Yes, the trilemma concept affects global financial stability as it involves factors such as exchange rates and monetary policies, which can greatly influence international trade and investment. When countries make decisions based on the trilemma principle, it can impact global financial markets and stability.

Can the trilemma concept be applied to all countries, regardless of their economic status?

Yes, the trilemma concept can be applied to all countries, irrespective of their economic status. However, the specific challenges and trade-offs involved may vary depending on the economic characteristics and situation of each country.

Related Finance Terms

  • Exchange Rate Regime
  • Monetary Policy Autonomy
  • Capital Mobility
  • Economic Stability
  • Globalization

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