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Trade Secret


A Trade Secret is any confidential business information which provides a competitive edge to a company. It encompasses manufacturing or industrial secrets and commercial secrets, including recipes, techniques, practices, or processes not known to others. The unauthorized use of such information is regarded as an unfair practice and a violation of the trade secret.


The phonetic pronunciation of “Trade Secret” would be “treyd si-krit”.

Key Takeaways

  1. Protection of Business Information: Trade secrets are a type of intellectual property that provide protection for confidential business information. This includes anything from methods and techniques to designs and data, that adds value to the business and provides a competitive edge in the marketplace because it is not generally known.
  2. Unlimited Duration: Unlike patents, copyright, and trademarks, the protection of trade secrets can potentially last indefinitely. It remains valid for as long as the secret is kept confidential and maintains its value to the business. However, if the secret is publicly disclosed, intentionally or unintentionally, the protection no longer exists.
  3. No Registration Required: Trade secrets do not need to be registered with the government to be protected. Unlike other forms of intellectual property, rights to a trade secret arise naturally upon the creation of the secret. However, the business must make reasonable efforts to maintain its secrecy.


Trade secrets are a crucial aspect of a company’s intellectual property and competitive strategy, providing economic advantage over competitors. They encompass valuable proprietary information that is not generally known by the public, such as manufacturing processes, client lists, marketing strategies, software algorithms, formulae, and innovative methods. The importance of trade secrets stems from the protection they offer the holder against unauthorized use or disclosure. If properly maintained, they can last indefinitely, providing a long-term edge in the marketplace. However, they require internal security measures, as legal protection against theft is only effective if trade secrets are demonstrably kept confidential. Hence, businesses must take considerable care in managing these essential assets.


A trade secret is a type of intellectual property that refers to a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable. It gives a business a competitive edge over their counterparts. The purpose of a trade secret is to uphold and preserve the exclusivity of an organization’s unique methods, processes or formulas. This exclusivity is a significant driver of a firm’s competitive advantage, enabling it to distinguish itself in the marketplace, sometimes with offerings that cannot be easily replicated by competitors. The existence of trade secrets can form the basis for a profitable enterprise, serving as the cornerstone of some businesses. Trade secrets can cover a wide spectrum from manufacturing techniques, sales or distribution methodologies, consumer profiles, software algorithms, or even advertising strategies. A classic example of a trade secret is the recipe for Coca-Cola, a formula which has been closely guarded since the 19th century. By keeping it a secret, Coca-Cola is able to maintain its unique flavor that distinguishes it from all other soft drinks in the market. Thus, it’s evident that trade secrets are pivotal in giving a company its individuality and market position.


1. The Coca-Cola Company’s Recipe: The secret recipe for Coca-Cola, known as “Merchandise 7X” is perhaps one of the most famous trade secrets in the history of business. To this day, the formula remains locked in a vault in Atlanta, Georgia. Only a select few within the company know the recipe, which has allowed Coca-Cola to maintain a unique product that competitors cannot exactly duplicate.2. Google’s Search Algorithm: Google’s search algorithm, which determines the ranking of search results, is another highly guarded trade secret. The details of the algorithm are unknown to the public and other businesses. This secrecy ensures that Google maintains its competitive edge in the online search industry, as competitors can’t replicate the same search results.3. KFC’s Original Recipe: Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC) also has a famous trade secret, the “Original Recipe” of 11 herbs and spices. This unique blend is what gives KFC food its distinctive taste. Just like Coca-Cola, the exact recipe is known by only a few within the company and is closely guarded to keep competitors at bay.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is a Trade Secret?

A trade secret is confidential information, formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable. It gives a business a competitive edge.

Why are Trade Secrets important?

Trade Secrets are important assets to a company as they provide them with a competitive advantage in the marketplace by keeping critical information like manufacturing processes, customer lists, and marketing strategies confidential.

What are the key features of Trade Secrets?

A Trade Secret must be secret, hold economic value and reasonable steps must have been taken to maintain its secrecy.

How are Trade Secrets protected?

There’s no registration process for a trade secret, it gets its protection simply by being kept a secret. Companies often employ Non-disclosure agreements, employee training, and robust security measures to protect trade secrets.

Can Trade Secrets be sold or licensed?

Yes, trade secrets can be sold or licensed to other entities. However, the selling or licensing must not result in the secret becoming accessible to the public.

What can businesses do if their Trade Secret is stolen?

If a trade secret is stolen or disclosed without permission, companies can initiate legal proceedings against the offending party. Remedies can include injunctions to prevent further use or disclosure, and damages to cover any financial harm caused.

Is there a difference between a Trade Secret and a Patent?

Yes. While both protect intellectual property, patents are public and offer protection for a limited period of time, whereas trade secrets are kept confidential and can potentially offer protection indefinitely as long as the secret is maintained.

Can customer lists be considered Trade Secrets?

Yes, customer lists can be considered trade secrets if they have been developed with considerable effort and kept confidential.

What happens when a Trade Secret becomes public knowledge?

Once a trade secret becomes public knowledge, it’s no longer considered a trade secret and loses its protection. The company may lose its competitive edge or exclusive use of that information or technique.

Do international laws protect Trade Secrets?

Trade secrets are primarily protected under national laws. However, international agreements like the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) require member states to provide protection for trade secrets.

Related Finance Terms

  • Intellectual Property
  • Non-Disclosure Agreement
  • Proprietary Information
  • Competitive Advantage
  • Confidentiality Agreement

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