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Survivorship Bias


Survivorship bias is a type of bias in financial analysis that results from only considering investments that have survived up to a certain point, overlooking those that failed or discontinued. This can skew results and create an overly optimistic view of investment performance. In essence, it creates a distortion by focusing only on successful outcomes while ignoring failures.


The phonetics of “Survivorship Bias” is /sərˈvaɪvərʃɪp ˈbaiəs/.

Key Takeaways

  1. Distorted Perception: Survivorship bias can lead to a distorted perception of the world, by focusing only on the successes or survivors in a particular field or situation. This can lead to an overestimate of the likelihood of success or survival, as the failures or non-survivors are not considered in the analysis.
  2. Implication in Decision Making: The bias can greatly impact decision-making processes in a variety of fields, including economics, business, and social research. It can influence people to base decisions on incomplete data, leading to potentially faulty or unwise choices.
  3. Looking at the Bigger Picture: One way to combat survivorship bias is by taking into account all available information, both successes and failures. This allows for a more comprehensive understanding and more accurate predictions or decisions. This recognition can help individuals and organizations critically examine their assumptions and decision-making processes.


Survivorship Bias is a critical concept in business and finance because it affects the interpretation and understanding of data, influencing business decisions, investment strategies, and risk assessment. It refers to the logical error of focusing solely on the entities or individuals that “survived” a particular process and overlooking those that did not because of their lack of visibility. For instance, in finance, if analysts only concentrate on businesses or stocks that have performed well over time, they can overlook potential risks or red flags presented by others that failed. The bias can lead to overly optimistic beliefs as it doesn’t account for the full range of possible outcomes, potentially resulting in flawed strategies and assessments.


Survivorship bias is critical in the world of finance and business as it aids in understanding, analyzing and interpreting financial data more accurately. The primary purpose of accounting for survivorship bias is to ensure that data evaluation and financial analysis are not skewed towards successful outcomes, providing a comprehensive look into the entire spectrum of possibilities, including both successful and failed ventures rather than just the former. Without the consideration of survivorship bias, the probabilities of success in different financial ventures could be significantly overstated, potentially leading to misguided strategies, decisions, and expectations.Additionally, survivorship bias is instrumental in risk assessment and management in investment portfolios. For instance, in constructing a mutual fund portfolio, understanding survivorship bias can guide investors in making well-informed decisions by not just considering funds that have survived or performed well but also those funds that have disappeared due to underperformance. Therefore, it prevents the over-estimation of future returns and assists in developing a more diversified, controlled risk portfolio. This recognition of the significance of failed ventures in data analysis induces realistic expectations and development of balanced strategies in business and finance.


1. Financial Mutual Funds: Survivorship bias is often implicated in the financial markets, particularly in the mutual fund industry. Investors or researchers examining a current list of mutual funds will only consider those that are currently operating and ignore the ones that disappeared due to poor performance or other reasons. This results in a biased comparison because the analysis does not take into consideration the funds that did not survive and could distort the average return.2. S&P 500 Index: The S&P 500 Index is another example where survivorship bias can be seen. This index is a weighted average of 500 companies’ stock, and unsuccessful companies are often removed from the index, while successful ones are added. This means that tracking the index’s performance over time could potentially be biased because it only represents the performance of successful companies.3. Entrepreneurial Success Stories: In entrepreneurship literature or media, most of the focus is placed on successful business ventures and entrepreneurs like Steve Jobs, Elon Musk, or Jeff Bezos. The countless businesses that have failed over time are often not mentioned or discussed. This can create a detrimental bias, as aspiring entrepreneurs may overestimate their own chances of success, not realizing the extensive number of ventures that do not succeed.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Survivorship Bias?

Survivorship Bias, in finance and business, refers to the logical error of focusing only on entities that have passed some kind of selection process and overlooking those that did not due to their lack of visibility. This can lead to false conclusions in various different ways.

Can you give an example of Survivorship Bias in finance?

In finance, Survivorship Bias is mostly seen when making decisions based on the performance of existing funds or companies. For example, if you evaluate a mutual fund based on its current portfolio, you may miss out on the data of those funds that have failed in the same period. This can give a skewed picture of overall financial success.

How does Survivorship Bias affect investing decisions?

Since Survivorship Bias leads individuals to base decisions on a skewed set of data, it can result in overly optimistic beliefs. For example, investors who focus only on successful funds may end up overestimating their own potential for profit, while ignoring the possibility of loss.

What is financial literature’s view on Survivorship Bias?

Financial literature suggests that avoidance of Survivorship Bias is critical when selecting portfolios or making investment decisions. The bias can lead to distorted perceptions of the average fund performance.

How can I avoid Survivorship Bias while investing?

To avoid Survivorship Bias, you need to consider the complete picture. Look at the performance of all funds or companies, not just the survivors or winners. Understand that previous winners are not necessarily future winners. The inclusion of failed or less performing assets is essential for a balanced view.

Is Survivorship Bias applicable only to finance and business?

No. While the term is commonly used in finance and business, Survivorship Bias can be applicable to any scenario where an individual is analyzing a group or set of data. It is even seen in fields like statistics, engineering, and in historical studies.

Related Finance Terms

  • Performance “Cherry-Picking”
  • Sample Selection Bias
  • Non-Representative Samples
  • Skewed Outcomes/Results
  • Statistical Bias

Sources for More Information

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