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Six Sigma


Six Sigma is a quality control methodology developed in 1986 by Motorola that focuses on minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes to ensure quality and efficiency. It uses statistical methods to identify and eliminate defects or errors, aiming for near perfection – specifically, fewer than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. The term “six sigma” comes from statistics and is used in the context of a performance target.


The phonetic pronunciation of the keyword “Six Sigma” is: “siks ‘sig-muh”

Key Takeaways

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  1. Improve Process Efficiency: Six Sigma is a methodology that aim to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of business processes by identifying and removing the causes of errors or defects and minimizing variability in manufacturing and business processes.
  2. Data-Driven Approach: Six Sigma emphasizes a data-driven approach in order to make informed decisions and create the most impactful changes. It relies on empirical evidence to identify areas of improvement and measure the success of implemented solutions.
  3. Belt Certification System: Six Sigma uses a belt certification system similar to that of judo. The belt types – white, yellow, green, black, and master black belt – represent levels of training, experience, and proficiency in the Six Sigma methodology.



Six Sigma is a critical business/finance concept because it represents a high-performance, data-driven approach to remove errors in any business process. By minimizing variability and deviation from the standard, Six Sigma improves a process’s reliability, predictability, efficiency, and overall quality, leading to reduced waste, increased customer satisfaction, and ultimately, increased profits. It provides businesses with strategic tools to track performance, systematically eliminate defects, and optimize all aspects of business operations, thereby fostering continuous improvement and enhancing competitive advantage.


Six Sigma is a highly disciplined, data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects and improving the quality in any process – from manufacturing to transactional, and from product to service. Initially developed by Motorola in the mid-1980s, the primary objective of Six Sigma is to implement a measurement-based strategy that focuses on process improvement and variation reduction through the application of Six Sigma improvement projects. This is achieved through use of two Six Sigma sub-methodologies: DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) and DMADV (Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Verify).In business and finance, this concept is used very frequently. It helps organizations become more efficient and effective by identifying and eliminating the causes of errors or defects and minimizing variability in business processes. It can be applied to myriad sectors of an organization to improve quality, ranging from customer support services to manufacturing to supply chain management. by using statistical methods to identify quantifiable data, Six Sigma allows companies to make informed business decisions, reduce costs, increase profits and improve communication among team members, ultimately boosting customer satisfaction.


1. General Electric: One of the most prominent adopters of Six Sigma methodology is General Electric, who implemented it during the 1990s under the leadership of their famous CEO Jack Welch. They utilized Six Sigma to streamline and optimize their business processes, resulting in significant savings. According to Welch, between 1996 and 1999, GE’s operating margins increased from 14.8% to 16.7% largely because of Six Sigma initiatives, saving the company around $2 billion a year.2. Motorola: Motorola is perhaps the most well-known example, as it was at the heart of their production improvement strategy in the mid-1980s. Adoption of Six Sigma led to a sharp reduction in product defects, achieving a level of only 3.4 defects per million opportunities. Across the board, Motorola attributed their $17 billion savings over the years to their Six Sigma initiatives.3. Amazon: The online retail giant Amazon has used the principles of Six Sigma not just in their distribution centers, but across their entire business operations, from customer service through to their IT department. This approach has enabled the company to scale their operations rapidly whilst avoiding errors and maintaining quality customer service. It helped improve on-time delivery rates and increase customer satisfaction as well as drive operational efficiency.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Six Sigma?

Six Sigma is a management strategy that applies statistical tools and techniques for business process improvement. It was designed to enhance the quality of process outputs by minimizing the variance in business processes and eliminating defects.

Who developed the Six Sigma concept?

The concept of Six Sigma was developed by Bill Smith, an engineer at Motorola, in 1986. Later it was popularized by Jack Welch, the former CEO of General Electric.

What is meant by ‘sigma’ in ‘Six Sigma’?

‘Sigma’ refers to a statistical term that measures how far a given process deviates from perfection. ‘Six sigma’ implies 3.4 defects per million opportunities, aiming towards perfect or near-perfect performance.

How does Six Sigma benefit a business?

Six Sigma reduces process variation and complexity, leading to a reduction in defects, improvement in profits, employee morale, quality of products, and customer satisfaction.

What is the DMAIC method in Six Sigma?

DMAIC stands for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. It is a data-driven methodology used to improve, optimize, and stabilize business processes and designs.

What is the difference between Lean and Six Sigma?

While both are strategies for business improvement, Lean is aimed at reducing waste and increasing speed, whereas Six Sigma focuses on reducing variations and errors in processes.

What role does a Six Sigma Green Belt play?

Green Belts are employees who are trained on the Six Sigma methodology and will lead a process improvement team as part of their full-time job.

What sectors or industries commonly use Six Sigma?

Six Sigma is used across multiple sectors including manufacturing, healthcare, finance, and IT. Virtually any business process that has measurable data can be improved through the implementation of Six Sigma.

Related Finance Terms

  • Lean Six Sigma
  • Statistical Quality Control
  • Process Variation
  • DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control)
  • Black Belt Certification

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