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Shareholder Value Added (SVA)


Shareholder Value Added (SVA) is a financial performance metric that companies use to measure the creation of value for shareholders. It is calculated by subtracting a firm’s cost of capital from its net operating profit after taxes. A positive SVA indicates that the company’s operations are generating more profit than the required return on capital, thereby adding value for the shareholders.


Shareholder Value Added (SVA) is pronounced as /ˈʃehrˌhoʊldər ˈvæljuː əˈdɛd/.

Key Takeaways

1. Definition of Shareholder Value Added (SVA): SVA is a performance metric that measures the value a company is able to return to its shareholders. Essentially, it evaluates the effectiveness of a given business at deploying investor funds to generate profit and growth. It is commonly calculated as the operating profit minus the cost of capital multiplied by the capital invested.

2. Significance of SVA: SVA is important because it reflects the financial success of a business from the perspective of those who invest in it. A positive SVA signifies that the company is creating wealth for its shareholders, while a negative SVA indicates the opposite. Therefore, SVA is a crucial measure of business performance and shareholder wealth creation over time.

3. Usage of SVA: Companies use SVA as a corporate performance metric as it offers insight into how much value is being generated for its shareholders. It can guide investment and operational decisions and can be useful in comparing the value generated by different companies. Investors can also use SVA as a tool for investment decisions, to understand whether a company is a worthwhile investment.


Shareholder Value Added (SVA) is a crucial financial metric in business as it provides a clear and quantitative measure of the value a company creates for its shareholders. By calculating the return on equity beyond the cost of capital, it showcases the company’s ability to generate profits in excess of costs, thus indicating its financial health, competitiveness, and long-term sustainability. For investors, SVA serves as a useful tool for investment decisions, as a higher SVA indicates that a company is more likely to provide profitable returns. Therefore, SVA is not just an important performance measure for companies, but also a key consideration for investors, making it an essential concept in finance and business management.


Shareholder Value Added (SVA) serves a crucial purpose in the realm of finance and business strategy. It is an economic value measurement tool that aids firms in raising their values and evaluating their financial performance from the investors’ standpoints. Essentially, this metric is used by corporations to quantify the return they have produced for their shareholders, relative to the cost of equity. The main purpose of SVA is to assist businesses in decision-making and help them generate strategies that ensure they are fostering an environment that will lead to favorable returns for its shareholders.SVA considers the financial goals of the company, especially from the perspective of shareholders, in its calculations. This tool is used to ensure that businesses are not only operating at a profit, but also that the profits are sufficient enough to reward shareholders for the risk they assumed when investing in the company. Often, the use of SVA can lead to structural changes in a corporation, focusing more acutely on the areas of business that yield a higher SVA. It becomes especially useful in capital budgeting decisions, performance measurement, and identifying areas in the company’s operations that can be improved to increase shareholder wealth. Overall, SVA is a framework used to enhance business strategies, aligning the corporate focus to prioritize shareholders’ wealth maximization.


1. Apple Inc.: One of the most significant examples of Shareholder Value Added (SVA) can be provided by Apple Inc. The company has demonstrated exceptional SVA through its enormous financial growth over the years. Innovation, consistent product superiority, and customer loyalty contributed substantially to this increase. Apple’s SVA was also boosted by strategic share buybacks, which not only improved earnings per share but also returned capital to shareholders.2. Microsoft Corp.: Microsoft has added value for its shareholders through various factors including the diversification of its product and service portfolio, strategic acquisitions, and robust financial performance. The company’s shift to cloud computing with Azure and Office 365, and the acquisitions of LinkedIn and GitHub have significantly contributed to the increase of its market capitalization, thus creating substantial shareholder value.3. Berkshire Hathaway Inc.: Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway has consistently added shareholder value by pursuing long-term, value-oriented investment strategies. The firm’s extensive and diverse portfolio of businesses and investments, along with a disciplined approach to capital allocation, has generated considerable SVA over time. The continuous increase in Berkshire Hathaway’s stock price and the value it has brought to its shareholders is a testament to its exceptional SVA.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Shareholder Value Added (SVA)?

Shareholder Value Added is a performance measure that calculates the amount of net operating profit after tax that a business generates above the cost of capital invested by shareholders. It shows how much wealth the company has generated or lost for its shareholders.

How is SVA calculated?

SVA = NOPAT – (Capital Invested × WACC). NOPAT stands for Net Operating Profit After Taxes, WACC for Weighted Average Cost of Capital.

What is the significance of SVA?

SVA indicates whether a company is bringing in enough profit to justify the capital invested by shareholders. A positive SVA suggests the firm is generating value for its shareholders, while a negative SVA indicates it is depleting shareholder wealth.

How does SVA differ from economic value added (EVA)?

While both SVA and EVA are value-based performance indicators, the main difference lies in their calculation. EVA takes into account the company’s economic profit whereas SVA focuses on the shareholder perspective, accounting for net operating profit and cost of capital.

Can a company have a high profit and a negative SVA?

Yes, a company may be reporting high profits, but if that profit is less than the cost of capital invested by shareholders, SVA could be negative. This means the company is not generating enough return on the capital invested by shareholders.

How can a company improve its SVA?

A company can improve its SVA by increasing its operating profits, optimizing capital investments, and effectively managing its cost of capital.

Is SVA the only measure of a business’s success?

No, while SVA is an important indicator of a company’s financial health, it’s not the only measure. Other factors such as market share, customer satisfaction, product innovation, and organizational culture are also important for business success.

What are some of the limitations of the SVA metric?

Like any financial metric, SVA too has its limitations. It’s mostly appropriate for mature, capital-intensive industries, and may not provide a complete picture of a company’s value creation potential, especially for firms in the growth phase or those heavily driven by human or intellectual capital.

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