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Say’s Law of Markets


Say’s Law of Markets, formulated by French economist Jean-Baptiste Say, states that the production of goods and services creates a corresponding demand for those products. In essence, supply generates its own demand. It implies that economic activity is primarily driven by production rather than consumer demand, suggesting that focusing on increasing supply will ultimately bolster economic growth.


sāz lô əv mär-kəts(Say’s Law of Markets)

Key Takeaways

  1. Say’s Law asserts that the production of goods and services creates a corresponding demand for them, meaning that supply creates its own demand. In essence, it implies that production and consumption are balanced in an economy, which prevents economic crises from happening due to insufficient demand.
  2. The concept of Say’s Law is often summarized by the phrase “supply constitutes demand.” This emphasizes the vital role of producers, as their supply determines the level of demand and economic activity. Hence, Say’s Law argues that the focus of an economy should be on encouraging production rather than consumption.
  3. While Say’s Law faced criticism and was challenged by various economic theories (notably Keynesian economics), it remains an essential element of classical economic thought. Its critics argue that it oversimplifies the economy and fails to account for the complexities of real-world markets, such as unemployment and economic recessions due to insufficient aggregate demand.


Say’s Law of Markets, also known as Say’s Law, is an essential concept in business and finance as it presents the foundation for understanding the relationship between supply and demand in an economy. Attributed to French economist Jean-Baptiste Say, this law posits that the act of producing goods or services generates enough income to ensure that these offerings are purchased, essentially stating that “supply creates its own demand.” Consequently, Say’s Law suggests that overproduction, which could lead to a general glut of goods, is unlikely within a market economy. This concept has significant implications for economic policy, trade, and growth, as it underscores the importance of promoting production and supply-side reforms to bolster economic health and stability, serving as an influential component of classical economic thought.


Say’s Law of Markets plays a crucial role in classical economic theory, asserting that production creates its own demand. French classical economist, Jean-Baptiste Say, proposed this concept in the early 1800s to understand the forces that bring about equilibrium between supply and demand, influencing the scope and extent of economic activities. Say’s Law postulates that when a business produces goods or services, it generates income in the economy, which in turn leads to increased demand for other goods and services, thus promoting economic growth. As a result, this law supports maintaining a favorable balance of supply and demand in an economy, facilitating an environment in which aggregate production equals aggregate demand, hence mitigating the risk of widespread unemployment or gluts within economies. However, Say’s Law has also been a topic of debate and criticism among economists, most notably during the Great Depression, when the reality of sustained unemployment defied the law’s implications. It is important to note that the law focuses primarily on flexible prices and rapid adjustment processes, which have not always been evident in real-world scenarios, leading to the emergence of Keynesian economic thought as an alternative theoretical framework. Nevertheless, Say’s Law of Markets remains a pivotal concept in economics to understand the cyclical nature of production and consumption, providing valuable insights into the interdependence of industries and markets, and reminding us of the importance of robust supply-side policies to promote long-term economic growth and development.


Say’s Law of Markets, proposed by French economist Jean-Baptiste Say, fundamentally states that supply creates its own demand. In simpler terms, Say’s Law suggests that in a market economy, the production of a good or service will ultimately generate enough income to create demand for the offered goods or services. Here are three real-world examples illustrating Say’s Law: 1. Technological innovations in smartphones: Over the past couple of decades, smartphone companies, such as Apple and Samsung, have continuously produced advanced models with new features that consumers didn’t even realize they wanted initially. Through continuous production and supply of these smartphones, the companies have managed to create a revenue stream both for themselves and for the app developers, accessories manufacturers, and service providers who cater to the smartphone industry. As a result, the creation and supply of new smartphone technologies have led to increased demand for their products and services in the market. 2. Electric cars: Innovations in the automotive industry have led companies like Tesla to shift to sustainable and eco-friendly modes of transport, such as the development of electric cars. By producing electric cars (and subsequently the charging infrastructure), Tesla has made these products more accessible to consumers, increasing awareness about sustainable transportation, and encouraging people to adopt environmentally friendly habits. Similarly, other companies have also started producing electric vehicles, further expanding their supply and creating a demand for these greener transportation options. 3. Emergence of e-commerce: In the early days of the internet, few people could have guessed the immense impact that e-commerce would have on the retail industry. Tech-savvy entrepreneurs like Amazon’s Jeff Bezos and eBay’s Pierre Omidyar recognized the potential of online retail and created platforms that ultimately shaped the entire industry. Over time, the initial supply of these online retail platforms has created jobs, expanded the market to small businesses, and generated numerous affiliate programs. As a result, the availability of e-commerce platforms has created a strong demand for online retail services among both businesses and consumers.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Say’s Law of Markets?
Say’s Law of Markets, also known as Say’s Law or Supply-side Economics, is an economic principle named after Jean-Baptiste Say, an 18th-century French economist. It states that supply creates its own demand, meaning that producing goods and services will generate enough income to purchase other goods and services of equivalent value.
What is the significance of Say’s Law in economics?
Say’s Law is significant in economics because it emphasizes the importance of production and supply-side factors in determining economic growth. It suggests that stimulating production will naturally lead to an increase in consumption, which can help ensure a balanced and growing economy.
How does Say’s Law relate to the concept of a general glut or surplus?
According to Say’s Law, a general glut or surplus in the economy cannot exist because any increase in production will create its own demand for the goods. This claim contradicted the belief of some classical economists who argued that an excess of goods might lead to a general surplus or lack of demand in the market.
What are the policy implications of Say’s Law?
The policy implications of Say’s Law favor a supply-side approach to economic management. This implies reducing barriers to production, such as taxes, regulations, and other factors that hinder businesses’ operations, to stimulate economic growth. Meanwhile, demand-side measures, like increasing public spending or redistributing wealth, are considered less effective by Say’s Law proponents.
How does Say’s Law apply to a modern economy?
In modern economies, Say’s Law can still provide a theoretical basis for supply-side economics and policies. By emphasizing the role of production, investments, and entrepreneurship in economic expansion, policymakers can focus on promoting a healthy business environment that encourages innovation, job creation, and overall growth. However, critics argue that Say’s Law may not hold in all circumstances, particularly when there is under-consumption or insufficient aggregate demand.
Has Say’s Law been challenged or critiqued?
Yes, Say’s Law has been challenged and critiqued by several economists, most notably John Maynard Keynes. Keynes argued that insufficient demand could lead to prolonged periods of economic stagnation or recession, as was the case during the Great Depression. In such situations, he believed, demand-side policies like fiscal stimulus and monetary easing could play a vital role in stabilizing the economy.

Related Finance Terms

  • Supply Creates its Own Demand
  • Production Drives Consumption
  • Market Equilibrium
  • Classical Economics
  • Glut Theory Rejection

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