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Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA): What It Is, With Examples


A Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA) is a legally binding contract between a buyer and a seller outlining the terms and conditions for the sale and purchase of assets or goods. It includes details such as agreed price, payment terms, delivery schedule, and any warranties or guarantees. Examples of SPA can be found in real estate transactions, mergers and acquisitions, and sales of personal property such as automobiles or artwork.


The phonetics for the keyword, “Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA): What It Is, With Examples” can be transcribed as follows:ˈseɪlz ənd ˈpɝːʧəs əˈgriːmənt (es-pi-eɪ) wət ɪt ɪz wɪð ɪɡˈzæmpəlz

Key Takeaways

    1. Definition and Purpose: A Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA) is a legally binding contract between two parties, often used in transactions involving the sale and purchase of goods or assets. The document outlines the terms and conditions of the transaction (such as product details, price, delivery terms, payment terms, etc.), helping to avoid misunderstandings and disputes between the parties involved.
    2. Key Components: A well-designed SPA will usually contain crucial details like (i) names and details of parties involved, (ii) a description of the goods/assets being sold, (iii) agreed-upon prices and payment schedule, (iv) terms of delivery or timeframes, (v) warranties and representations, and (vi) clauses for dispute resolution and termination of the agreement.
    3. Examples: SPAs are commonly used in a variety of industries and situations. Examples include (i) Real estate transactions where both parties sign an agreement outlining the sale and purchase terms of a property, (ii) Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) where businesses are bought or sold and the terms of the transaction are outlined, and (iii) International trade deals where businesses from different countries lay out the conditions of their commercial relationship in written form.


The Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA) is an essential document in business and finance transactions, as it sets out the specific terms, conditions, rights, and obligations agreed upon by both the buyer and the seller involved in the exchange of goods, services, or assets. It acts as a legally binding contract, providing clarity and protection to both parties, while mitigating potential disputes and misunderstandings. SPA plays a crucial role in various transactions such as mergers and acquisitions, real estate deals, and company sales. By offering an in-depth understanding of the various provisions, it assists businesses in evaluating the risks, liabilities, and potential benefits associated with the deal. Hence, the SPA is vital in ensuring smoother and secure completion of transactions, contributing significantly to business success and growth.


A Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA) serves a vital function in the realm of business and finance, as it outlines the essential terms and conditions that govern the sale or purchase of goods or services between two interested parties. The primary purpose of an SPA is to specify the features of the underlying transaction, such as the nature of the goods and services being exchanged, the agreed-upon price, the terms of payment, delivery details, and any warranties or guarantees. By providing a concrete framework, the SPA minimizes the risk of disputes or misunderstandings, thereby fostering a smoother and more efficient transaction process. SPA forms the backbone of various business transactions and can be found in scenarios ranging from real estate deals to acquisitions of smaller ventures. For example, consider a prospective homebuyer looking to purchase a property from a developer.

In this case, the SPA not only defines the specifications of the property but also ensures that the developer adheres to the agreed-upon construction and delivery timelines. Another instance might involve an entrepreneur looking to acquire a small retail store. Here, an SPA ensures that the business’s assets, inventory, and other essentials are properly transferred, while also addressing any outstanding liabilities that require attention. Ultimately, the Sales and Purchase Agreement serves as a legally binding blueprint that safeguards the interests of both buyers and sellers throughout the transaction.


A Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA) is a comprehensive legal document that outlines the terms and conditions for the sale and purchase of goods or assets. It is commonly used in various industries to facilitate transactions between buyers and sellers. Here are three real-world examples of how a SPA can be utilized in different sectors:

1. Real EstateIn a real estate transaction, a Sales and Purchase Agreement is often used to outline the property’s details, including the legal description, purchase price, payment method, and closing date. For example, John wants to sell his house to Jane, so they agree on a price and terms. They enter into an SPA to specify the terms of the sale, including the price, deposit, any contingencies (such as financing or inspection), and the closing date.

2. Mergers and AcquisitionsWhen one company acquires another, a Sales and Purchase Agreement is often utilized to outline the terms of the deal. For example, Company A wants to purchase Company B to expand its market presence and gain access to new technologies. The SPA will include details regarding the purchase price, asset or stock transfer, and any conditions that must be met before the deal is finalized. This can include regulatory approvals, third-party consents, or even any potential liabilities that might arise post-closing.

3. Sale of a Small BusinessFor entrepreneurs looking to sell their small business, a Sales and Purchase Agreement is crucial to protect their interests and the interests of the buyer. For example, a restaurant owner may want to retire and sell their business to an interested buyer. The SPA will detail the assets included in the sale (such as equipment, intellectual property, or inventory), liabilities to be assumed by the buyer, payment terms, and any warranties or representations made by both parties. This ensures a smooth transition of ownership and provides legal protection to both parties.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is a Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA)?

A Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA) is a legal contract between a buyer and a seller that outlines the terms and conditions of the sale of a particular item, such as property, shares, or assets. The agreement establishes the rights and responsibilities of each party and sets the rules governing the transaction.

When is a Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA) used?

A Sales and Purchase Agreement is used in various transactions, particularly in the sale of property, business assets, or company shares. It is an essential document in transactions that involve complex negotiations, substantial financial commitments, or considerable legal obligations.

What are the key components of a Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA)?

Key components of a Sales and Purchase Agreement include the following:1. Identification of the parties: Names and contact information of the buyer and seller.2. Description of the item being sold: Detailed information about the property, shares, or assets.3. Purchase price: The agreed-upon price to be paid by the buyer.4. Payment terms: The method and schedule of payment, such as a deposit or installments.5. Conditions precedent to closing: Any conditions that must be met before the transaction is finalized.6. Representations and warranties: Legal assurances made by the parties about the accuracy of the agreed-upon facts.7. Indemnities: Obligations of the parties to compensate each other for specific losses.8. Closing date: The date when the transaction is expected to be completed.9. Governing law: The jurisdiction under which any disputes will be resolved.

Can you provide an example of a Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA)?

An example of a Sales and Purchase Agreement could be the sale of a commercial property. In this case, the SPA will include the buyer and seller’s details, a description of the property and its location, the purchase price, payment terms, and any contingencies that must be satisfied before the transaction can be completed. The agreement would also contain representations and warranties made by both parties, such as the seller’s assurance that there are no liens on the property or outstanding legal issues. The SPA would define the closing date and applicable governing law.

Can a Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA) be amended?

Yes, a Sales and Purchase Agreement can be amended as long as both parties agree to the changes in writing. Amendments can include changes to the purchase price, payment terms, or conditions precedent to closing. If both parties consent to the modifications, they must sign and date an addendum to the original SPA that outlines the agreed-upon changes.

How does a Sales and Purchase Agreement (SPA) become legally binding?

A Sales and Purchase Agreement becomes legally binding once it is signed by both the buyer and the seller. The signing process indicates that both parties have read and understood the terms and conditions of the agreement and are willing to abide by them. After being signed, the SPA is enforceable by law, and any breaches of the contract can result in legal consequences.

Related Finance Terms

  • Contractual Obligations: The specific duties and responsibilities of both the buyer and seller as stated in the Sales and Purchase Agreement.
  • Due Diligence: The process of investigating and verifying the accuracy of information provided by the seller before the buyer enters into an SPA.
  • Payment Terms: The conditions that determine how and when the buyer will pay the seller, including the agreed-upon currency, payment method, and deadlines.
  • Representations and Warranties: Statements made by both parties concerning the condition and value of the business being acquired, as well as any outstanding legal or financial issues.
  • Termination Clause: A provision in the Sales and Purchase Agreement outlining the circumstances that would allow either party to cancel the contract without consequences.

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