Close this search box.

Table of Contents

Return on Risk-Adjusted Capital (RORAC)


Return on Risk-Adjusted Capital (RORAC) is a financial measure used to assess the effectiveness and profitability of an investment relative to its risk. It involves adjusting the capital to reflect the level of risk associated with an investment. The purpose is to identify whether an investment generates sufficient returns to compensate for its risk level, thus helping in making efficient capital allocation decisions.


The phonetic pronunciation of the keyword “Return on Risk-Adjusted Capital (RORAC)” is “rɪˈtɜrn ɒn rɪsk-əˈdʒʌstɪd ˈkæpɪtl (RORAC)”.

Key Takeaways

1. Measurement of Profitability: Return on Risk-Adjusted Capital or RORAC is a risk-adjusted measure of the return generated on capital, considering the risks taken on by the business. It provides a benchmark for evaluating investments that have different risk profiles. The higher the RORAC, the better the returns are given the risks.

2. Risk Management Tool: RORAC helps in the identification and management of financial risks by quantifying the risk in terms of potential loss of capital. This makes it a powerful tool in financial risk management, strategic planning, and decision-making.

3. Comparative Analysis: By adjusting returns with respect to risk, RORAC assists in comparing the profitability of different units or businesses within an organization or even different organizations entirely. It aids in allocating capital to different units within a firm based on comparative RORAC values.


Return on Risk-Adjusted Capital (RORAC) is an important metric in business and finance as it allows firms to account for the risk associated with their investments and financial strategies, enabling more informed decision-making. By considering the risk alongside the potential return, companies can thoroughly assess the viability and profitability of investments or projects. Consequently, this promotes a more balanced and risk-aware approach to capital allocation, aiding in risk management and working towards maximizing shareholder value. RORAC is particularly crucial for financial institutions or businesses involved in high-risk investments where it becomes essential to measure the returns against potential risk exposure.


Return on Risk-Adjusted Capital (RORAC) is considered an essential financial metric in sectors such as banking, insurance, and other finance-related institutions, that seeks to delineate the relationship between the risk and return of a given investment. This metric is an effective financial tool as it allows enterprises to balance risk and reward efficiently. By leveraging RORAC, firms can determine the expected returns on an investment after adjusting for its risk, ensuring that they are not taking on undue risk for a potential reward. When used judiciously and regularly, it can help guide strategic and tactical decisions about where to deploy capital in a way that is risk-efficient.In a broader business context, with the advent of modern risk management, RORAC has become a key financial ratio that decision-makers scrutinize while considering the potential of an investment causing a disproportionate loss. This could be an investment in a physical asset, a financial instrument, or even a whole project or business unit. For each investment, the RORAC ratio is computed and then compared with other investment opportunities. Investments that demonstrate a higher return on risk-adjusted capital are generally favored, as they indicate a higher potential return for each unit of risk taken on. By such, it helps in creating a bridge between risk and reward metrics, allowing companies to evaluate diverse capital allocation options and make decisions that optimize risk-adjusted returns.


1. Insurance Companies: Insurance companies constantly manage a portfolio of risks that can potentially lead to claims. RORAC is frequently used in this context to ensure that the premiums they earn from insurance policies are sufficient to cover the risk-adjusted capital that may need to be paid out in claims. A specific example can be taken from insurance giant Allianz, which bases their risk management approaches on a Risk Adjusted Capital Model (RACM) to produce a return. 2. Banks and Financial Institutions: An example of RORAC in banking could be seen in loans extended to customers. Institutions like Bank of America or JPMorgan Chase take into account the risk profile of borrowers, interest rates, potential defaults, among other factors, when calculating the RORAC. If the return is not justifying the adjusted risks, banks may reject the loan application or charge higher interest to increase the return.3. Investment Firms: Investment firms such as Vanguard or BlackRock use RORAC to assess the performance of various investments in a portfolio. For example, if a particular investment offers a high return but also carries high risk, its RORAC might be lower than a safer investment with a slightly lower nominal return. These firms use RORAC to decide which investment should receive larger capital allocations.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Return on Risk-Adjusted Capital (RORAC)?

RORAC is a financial ratio used to assess the profitability of an investment, adjusted for the risk involved. It allows companies or investors to compare the returns from different investments while taking into account the level of risk associated with each of them.

How is RORAC calculated?

RORAC is calculated by dividing the expected return of an investment by the risk associated with it. The risk is usually expressed in terms of Economic Capital.

What is the purpose of RORAC?

The purpose of RORAC is to ensure that the returns from an investment are commensurate with the risk undertaken. It helps in the decision-making process, allowing investors/companies to select investments that provide a higher rate of return for a given level of risk.

How do companies use RORAC?

Companies use RORAC to help make investment decisions. It allows them to compare potential investments or projects on a more equal footing, taking into account both revenue and risk factors.

What’s the difference between RORAC and ROE (Return on Equity)?

While both are profitability ratios, the main difference lies in the risk factor. ROE does not take into account the risk associated with the investment. On the other hand, RORAC provides a more accurate picture by accounting for the risk factor.

Is a higher RORAC always better?

Generally speaking, a higher RORAC indicates a more attractive investment, as it implies a higher return relative to the risk. However, it’s important to consider other financial metrics and business factors before making an investment decision.

Can RORAC be negative?

Yes, RORAC can be negative. This generally indicates that an investment or project is expected to result in a loss, given the associated risks.

Is RORAC similar to Risk-Adjusted Return on Capital (RAROC)?

While they sound very similar, RAROC is a slightly different ratio. It takes into account not just the expected return and the risk, but also the cost of capital. In essence, while RORAC focuses on just the risk and return, RAROC provides a more comprehensive view.

Related Finance Terms

Sources for More Information

About Our Editorial Process

At Due, we are dedicated to providing simple money and retirement advice that can make a big impact in your life. Our team closely follows market shifts and deeply understands how to build REAL wealth. All of our articles undergo thorough editing and review by financial experts, ensuring you get reliable and credible money advice.

We partner with leading publications, such as Nasdaq, The Globe and Mail, Entrepreneur, and more, to provide insights on retirement, current markets, and more.

We also host a financial glossary of over 7000 money/investing terms to help you learn more about how to take control of your finances.

View our editorial process

About Our Journalists

Our journalists are not just trusted, certified financial advisers. They are experienced and leading influencers in the financial realm, trusted by millions to provide advice about money. We handpick the best of the best, so you get advice from real experts. Our goal is to educate and inform, NOT to be a ‘stock-picker’ or ‘market-caller.’ 

Why listen to what we have to say?

While Due does not know how to predict the market in the short-term, our team of experts DOES know how you can make smart financial decisions to plan for retirement in the long-term.

View our expert review board

About Due

Due makes it easier to retire on your terms. We give you a realistic view on exactly where you’re at financially so when you retire you know how much money you’ll get each month. Get started today.

Due Fact-Checking Standards and Processes

To ensure we’re putting out the highest content standards, we sought out the help of certified financial experts and accredited individuals to verify our advice. We also rely on them for the most up to date information and data to make sure our in-depth research has the facts right, for today… Not yesterday. Our financial expert review board allows our readers to not only trust the information they are reading but to act on it as well. Most of our authors are CFP (Certified Financial Planners) or CRPC (Chartered Retirement Planning Counselor) certified and all have college degrees. Learn more about annuities, retirement advice and take the correct steps towards financial freedom and knowing exactly where you stand today. Learn everything about our top-notch financial expert reviews below… Learn More