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Required Rate of Return (RRR)


The Required Rate of Return (RRR) is the minimum return an investor expects to receive on an investment, considering its level of risk. Essentially, it quantifies the potential earnings an investment must generate to be worthwhile. The RRR is influenced by factors such as risk level, inflation rates, and duration of the investment.


The phonetic pronunciation of the keyword: Required Rate of Return (RRR) is: rəˈkwīərd rāt əv riˈtərn

Key Takeaways

  1. Definition: The Required Rate of Return (RRR) is the minimum return an investor expects their investment to achieve to compensate for the risks undertaken. It represents the potential return that would make an investment worthwhile.
  2. Determining Factors: The RRR is influenced by a variety of factors such as the risk-free rate, the market rate, and the specific risk linked to the investment. The investors’ personal risk tolerance and expectations also play a role in determining the RRR.
  3. Uses: The RRR is crucial in portfolio management and capital budgeting. It helps investors to select assets that could generate returns to match their investment goals, and enables companies to decide on potential investments or projects by comparing the potential returns with the RRR.


The Required Rate of Return (RRR) is a critical concept in business and finance as it specifies the minimum amount of profit or return on investment an investor expects or desires from a potential investment, given its associated level of risk. It helps investors to make investment decisions by comparing the potential profitability of various investment options against their risk tolerance. It is significant for businesses too, as they aim to exceed the RRR when planning their investment projects to generate sufficient profits that reward the investors for the risk taken. It indirectly affects the cost of capital and influences capital budgeting decisions, helping businesses to plan their future strategies accurately, effectively manage their capital and boost their general financial performance.


The Required Rate of Return (RRR) is a critical concept in finance and business that serves as a benchmark for making investment decisions. The purpose of the RRR is to determine the minimum return an investor expects to earn, or deems necessary, on a particular investment, considering factors such as risk, inflation, and the available rate of return on other comparable investments. This enables investors to assess whether an investment has the potential to produce adequate returns, compensating for its risk level and time value of money. RRR is the concept that helps align investments with an investor’s risk tolerance and objectives, contributing to the formulation of a balanced and effective financial strategy.RRR is also used by companies in capital budgeting decisions to identify suitable investments and projects that align with their strategic and financial goals. Companies assess the profitability and feasibility of potential projects or acquisitions based on whether they can meet or exceed the RRR. If the estimated rate of return on an investment or project meets or exceeds a company’s RRR, it is generally considered a viable option and may be pursued. Conversely, if the potential return falls short of the RRR, it signals excessive risk or inadequate profitability, leading a company to skip the investment. Therefore, from both an individual and corporate standpoint, RRR serves as an essential tool for navigating the complex and multi-dimensional world of investment decision-making.


1) Investment in Stocks: An investor who is considering investing in the stock market may use the Required Rate of Return to determine the minimum return they would need to make this investment worthwhile. For example, if the investor requires a 10% return because they consider the associated risk high compared to other investments, the stock will need to provide a return of at least that much to be considered a viable investment. 2) Real Estate Investment: An individual or business that wants to invest in a commercial property might require a rate of return of 15% to cover the cost of the investment, potential risks, and to make a profit. So, using the RRR, the investor can decide whether a property will generate enough income to meet this objective. 3) Business Projects: A company might use the Required Rate of Return to evaluate and decide whether to pursue a new project. For instance, if the company has a project that needs a substantial upfront investment and they have set their RRR at 12%. If the anticipated return from that project is only 8%, they might opt not to pursue that project as it does not meet their RRR.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the Required Rate of Return (RRR)?

Required Rate of Return (RRR) is the minimum acceptable return on an investment that an investor demands for the risk associated with a particular investment.

How is the Required Rate of Return calculated?

The Required Rate of Return is typically calculated using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) where RRR = Risk-free rate + Beta*(Market Return – Risk-free rate).

What is the significance of RRR in investment decisions?

RRR is an important concept in making investment decisions because it allows the investor to set a threshold for the minimum return they wish to earn from an investment. If the expected return from the investment is below the RRR, the investor may prefer not to invest.

Can RRR change over time?

Yes, RRR can change over time based on factors such as changes in interest rates, changes in the investor’s economic outlook, or changes in the investor’s risk tolerance.

What does a high Required Rate of Return indicate?

A high Required Rate of Return suggests either that the investor has a high-risk tolerance or that the investment itself is risky. It means that the investor needs a higher return to justify the investment risk.

What is the role of RRR in corporate finance?

Within corporate finance, the RRR is used as the discount rate in net present value (NPV) and internal rate of return (IRR) calculations, playing a crucial role in capital budgeting decisions.

How does inflation impact the Required Rate of Return?

Inflation is an important consideration in determining the RRR. If inflation is expected to rise, an investor may increase their RRR to ensure that their return maintains its purchasing power.

What is the relationship between the Required Rate of Return and risk?

There is a direct relationship between RRR and risk. The higher the risk associated with an investment, the higher the RRR will be. This is because investors would expect a higher return for taking on additional risk.

Related Finance Terms

  • Cost of Capital: The minimum return that an investor requires for an investment, considering the risk involved. Often used interchangeably with Required Rate of Return.
  • Risk Premium: The reward an investor require for assuming a greater degree of risk, effectively raising the Required Rate of Return.
  • Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM): A model that calculates the Required Rate of Return for an investment, given the risk-free rate, the expected market return, and the asset’s risk level.
  • Discount Rate: Another term often used interchangeably with Required Rate of Return, particularly in relation to discounted cash flow analysis, which determines the present value of future cash flows.
  • Investment Decision Making: The process where the Required Rate of Return plays a crucial role. It helps determine whether an investment is worthwhile by comparing it with the expected rate of return.

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