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Private Investment in Public Equity (PIPE)


Private Investment in Public Equity (PIPE) is a financing technique used by companies wherein they sell shares of public stock at a discount to private investors. It allows companies to raise capital from accredited investors or financial institutions quickly. This approach can offer benefits to the company such as speed and efficiency, but may negatively impact existing shareholders due to the stock dilution.


The phonetics of the keyword “Private Investment in Public Equity (PIPE)” is:Private: /ˈpraɪvət/Investment: /ɪnˈvɛstmənt/in: /ɪn/Public: /ˈpʌblɪk/Equity: /ˈɛkwɪti/PIPE: /paɪp/

Key Takeaways

  1. Unique Financing Method: Private Investment in Public Equity, or PIPE, represents a unique method of financing for publicly traded companies. They can secure funds from private investors by selling securities usually at a discounted price, bypassing the need for public offerings, which can be time-consuming and costly.
  2. Benefits for Investors: For investors, a PIPE deal entails owning shares at a relatively lower cost, allowing for potential high returns if the company performs well. However, it’s important to note that they are typically only available to accredited and institutional investors due to the associated risks, meaning they are not accessible to all investors.
  3. Risks Involved: There could be corresponding risks as well. Publicly traded companies might resort to PIPE deals because of financial strain, suggesting potential instability. Additionally, investors may face the dilution of ownership percentage due to new shares being issued. Therefore, careful analysis and evaluation of the company’s performance are essential before investors choose to invest via PIPEs.


Private Investment in Public Equity (PIPE) is a crucial term in business/finance as it refers to the method by which public companies raise capital by selling their securities to accredited investors at a discounted price. This strategy is especially important during periods of financial distress when companies need immediate funding. Since it avoids the lengthy process associated with traditional equity financing, it provides a faster way for companies to raise capital. Additionally, for investors, PIPE deals can be appealing because of the potential for a high return on investment, despite the associated risks. Therefore, its significance lies in its ability to offer benefits to both companies in need of quick capital and to private investors looking for potentially high returns.


Private Investment in Public Equity (PIPE) is a strategy by private investors to acquire securities directly from the public entity in contrast to purchasing them in open markets. The main purpose of a PIPE transaction is to raise capital from private investors when traditional secondary market offerings aren’t a suitable solution for a publicly traded company. The need for PIPE financing commonly arises when companies need quick access to capital, or when companies are in transition or facing significant events such as mergers or acquisitions. It provides the public company with a viable alternative to obtain funding, especially in situations where market conditions make other forms of financing less advantageous.By using PIPE strategies, companies can access the funding they need immediately without having to navigate through the complexities of formal procedures such as registrations. From an investor’s perspective, PIPE deals can be attractive as they often offer shares at a discount, raising the potential for significant financial returns. However, it’s also important to consider that PIPE investments can be risky due to their lack of liquidity, and fluctuation in stock prices can hinder the company’s future fundraising efforts. Therefore, both the company and the investor need to ensure that the terms of a PIPE deal align with their strategic objectives and risk tolerance levels.


1. Tesla, Inc.: In 2015, the electric car and renewable energy company Tesla secured funding through a PIPE deal with ten institutional investors. Tesla raised $226.5 million through this deal, using the funds to go toward the development of its Model X vehicle.2. World Wrestling Entertainment (WWE): In 2011, WWE was involved in a PIPE where it sold $100 million worth of new equity to a group of institutional investors. The funds were raised to expand its television network.3. Sprint Corporation: In 2018, telecom giant Sprint Corporation entered into a PIPE agreement to raise capital by selling $3.9 billion of its convertible preferred stock to a group of institutional investors. This was done to boost the company’s liquidity and for general corporate purposes.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Private Investment in Public Equity (PIPE)?

PIPE is a financial strategy where private investors buy publicly traded shares at a discounted price directly from a company. This is different from buying shares in the open market.

Who generally uses Private Investment in Public Equity deals?

Typically, PIPE deals are used by hedge funds, mutual funds, and other accredited investors. They are often attractive to smaller companies or those in distress.

What is the benefit of a PIPE to a company?

PIPE can offer a quick and efficient way to raise capital, often when other sources aren’t available. It can give a company the option to negotiate their terms directly with the investor.

What are the benefits for investors in PIPE deals?

Investors can often secure shares at a discounted rate. They can purchase large quantities of shares with minimal impact on the share price in the market.

Are there disadvantages to PIPE deals?

There are potential disadvantages to PIPE deals, including dilution of existing share value, shareholder backlash, and significant changes in corporate control. There is also a potential risk of regulatory scrutiny.

Are PIPE transactions regulated?

Yes, PIPE transactions are regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in the United States.

What are different types of PIPE deals?

There are two types of PIPE deals: traditional PIPE and structured PIPE. Traditional PIPE involves common or preferred shares sold at a fixed price. Structured PIPE can involve convertible debentures, convertible preferred shares, or warrants.

Can any public company conduct a PIPE deal?

In theory, any public company could conduct a PIPE deal. But they are more common with smaller or mid-cap companies that have trouble accessing traditional funding sources.

Are there examples of well-known companies conducting PIPE deals?

Yes, many well-known companies have utilized PIPE deals. Some examples could include Tesla, Inc., and IMAX Corporation.

Related Finance Terms

  • Convertible debt: A type of bond that the holder can convert into a specified number of shares of common stock in the issuing company or cash of equal value.
  • Equity securities: An ownership interest in an enterprise and includes stocks, mutual funds and bonds.
  • Due diligence: An examination of a potential investment product to confirm all facts, such as reviewing all financial records, plus anything else deemed material.
  • Secondary public offering: The sale of new or closely held shares of a company that has already made an initial public offering (IPO).
  • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC): The U.S. governmental body that regulates securities transactions and enforces securities laws.

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