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Physical Capital


Physical capital refers to tangible assets used in the production of goods or services, including machinery, buildings, vehicles, and equipment. It’s an essential resource in the operation of businesses and industries. The value of physical capital can be depreciated over time due to factors like wear and tear.


The phonetics of “Physical Capital” is: /ˈfɪzɪkəl ˈkæpɪtəl/

Key Takeaways

<ol><li>Physical Capital refers to tangible, man-made objects like buildings, machinery, and equipment that are used in the production of goods and services. It increases productivity and is a critical factor in economic growth and development. </li><li>The maintenance and improvement of physical capital, also known as capital accumulation, can require significant costs and investments. Regular upkeep and introduction of modern, more efficient technologies help in maintaining the productive value of physical capital. </li><li>Depreciation plays a critical role in physical capital. Over time, physical capital like machines and equipment can wear out or become obsolete. Factors like routine use, age, and deterioration can decrease the value and effectiveness of physical capital, leading to depreciation.</li></ol>


Physical capital is crucial in business and finance because it represents the tangible resources that a business owns to produce goods or services, such as machinery, equipment, tools, and infrastructures. The amount and efficiency of physical capital can greatly affect a business’s productivity, operational costs, and profitability. It is a core component of business operations that can be directly managed and optimized for value creation. Furthermore, effectively maintained physical capital can also increase a business’s lifespan and fiscal stability. A business’s investment in physical capital is a key indicator of its commitment to sustainable growth and development. It showcases the ability to introduce technology improvements, evolution, and expansion in offerings.


Physical capital refers to the tangible assets that a business uses in its operations to generate revenue. This includes buildings, machinery, technologies, tools, and vehicles, among others. These assets are critical to a company’s operations since they aid in the production of goods or the provision of services. For example, a delivery company uses trucks and other vehicles to deliver parcels, or a manufacturing business uses machinery to produce its products. In this sense, physical capital plays a central role in enhancing productivity and efficiency in business operations.The primary purpose of physical capital is to increase a company’s production capacity and, subsequently, its profitability. These assets can lead to economies of scale (higher efficiency as the amount of goods produced increases), allowing companies to outperform their competitors by providing services or goods at lower costs. Investment in physical capital also provides a foundation for technological progress, enabling firms to embrace automation and digitization. Therefore, maintaining, upgrading, and replenishing physical capital based on the changing business environment can be as important as the initial investment, marking its versatility in contributing to business growth and competitiveness.


1. Machinery in a Manufacturing Plant: In any manufacturing industry, the machinery and equipment used to produce goods is a prime example of physical capital. For instance, the assembly line equipment in an automobile factory is a significant investment for the company. It allows them to produce cars at a large scale to meet consumer demand.2. Buildings and Real Estate: The buildings and properties owned by a business also represent physical capital. For instance, a company like McDonald’s or Starbucks not only values their physical locations for daily operations, but also as an investment. This includes the land, the restaurant or store buildings, and the interior furnishings and equipment needed to serve customers.3. Agricultural Equipment: In the agriculture industry, physical capital includes the machinery, like tractors and harvesters, as well as structures such as barns, silos, and irrigation systems. These are substantial investments that enhance the productivity of farm operations, helping to plant, care for and harvest crops more efficiently.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Physical Capital?

Physical Capital refers to the non-human assets owned by businesses that are used in their production processes. These assets typically include machinery, buildings, vehicles, and equipment.

Why is Physical Capital important in business?

Physical Capital is crucial for the production process and is key to increasing productivity. Businesses invest in Physical Capital to improve efficiency, enhance productivity and ultimately increase profits.

How does Physical Capital differ from Human Capital?

While both are essential to the running of a business, Physical Capital refers to tangible, non-human assets like machinery or buildings, whereas Human Capital refers to the skills, knowledge, and abilities of a business’s workforce.

What is depreciation in Physical Capital?

Depreciation is the loss of value of physical assets over time due to factors like wear and tear, obsolescence, or economic aging. For example, a machine may decrease in value over time due to constant use.

Can businesses determine the exact value of their Physical Capital?

While it can be difficult to determine the exact value of Physical Capital, businesses often estimate this value based on the original cost of the assets, their current condition, and their estimated useful life.

What is the role of Physical Capital in economic growth?

Significant economic growth generally requires investment in Physical Capital. This investment can increase production capacity, fuel innovation, and create jobs, thereby contributing to overall economic growth.

What are some examples of Physical Capital?

Physical Capital includes any tangible non-human assets used in the production of goods or services. This includes machinery, buildings, vehicles, and tools. For a restaurant, for example, the physical capital would include kitchen equipment, tables, chairs, and the building itself.

How does a company acquire Physical Capital?

Companies can acquire Physical Capital by purchasing or leasing assets. They can also invest in the production of these assets, for example, by constructing buildings or manufacturing equipment.

Does Physical Capital have limitations?

Yes, Physical Capital can have limitations. It often requires significant investment and maintenance, can depreciate over time, and it may become obsolete as technology progresses.

: What is the relationship between Physical Capital and operating cost?

: Investing in or maintaining Physical Capital can significantly impact a company’s operating costs. For example, the cost of repairing or upgrading machinery, or the expenses related to the leasing or purchasing of new assets, would fall under operating costs.

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