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Peter Principle


The Peter Principle is a concept in management theory formulated by Laurence J. Peter. It suggests that employees within an organization tend to rise to their level of incompetence over time. That is, employees are promoted based on their success in previous jobs until they reach a level where they no longer perform competently.


The phonetics of “Peter Principle” is: /ˈpitər ˈprɪnsəpəl/

Key Takeaways

  1. The Peter Principle is a concept in management theory, which suggests that employees within an organization will rise to their level of incompetence. This means individuals will keep getting promoted based on their success in previous jobs until they reach a position where they are no longer competent.
  2. This principle was introduced by Laurence J. Peter in his humoristic book of the same name, published in 1969. The book theorized that in a hierarchy, members are promoted so long as they work competently. However, they stop being promoted once they can no longer perform effectively because skills in one job do not necessarily translate to another.
  3. The Peter Principle highlights the potential pitfalls of a standard promotion system and can be seen as a critique of traditional hierarchical organizational structures. Overcoming this requires organizations to consider competency and skills for the specific role rather than general performance when considering promotions.


The Peter Principle is an essential concept in business and finance because it provides an observational theory about the patterns of promotions within an organization. Introduced by Dr. Laurence J. Peter, this principle asserts that employees are promoted based on their performance in their current roles rather than their potential capabilities in their new roles. Consequently, employees continue to be elevated until they reach a position where they can no longer perform competently, leading to incompetency at higher levels — a phenomenon called “hierarchical incompetence.” Understanding this principle helps businesses to reevaluate their promotion strategies, ensuring that employees are not just promoted for their current performance, but also for their potential in new roles, leading to greater efficiency and success in the organization.


The Peter Principle is primarily used as a lens to understand the dynamics of organizational hierarchy, management efficiency, and employee competence. It is a concept in management theory, formulated by Laurence J. Peter, which observes that individuals in a hierarchical structure get promoted until they reach their level of incompetence. Simply put, the principle posits that employees are promoted based on their success in previous jobs until they reach a level at which they are no longer competent, as skills in one job do not necessarily translate to another. Therefore, the principle serves as a cautionary pointer hinting at the paradoxical pitfall of promoting a competent person into a position where they could become incompetent.The principle’s primary utility is in recognizing and mitigating inefficiencies that result from an ill-suited hierarchy in an organization or business strategy. Companies can apply this principle to address and forestall issues that may arise due to mismatched competencies. It provides the rationale for businesses to consider the specific skill set required for a new role rather than merely relying on an individual’s past performance or general abilities. Being aware of the Peter Principle can help organizations initiate measures such as appropriate training, mentoring, or changes in their promotion policies to ensure that their employees don’t end up in positions beyond their capacity to perform effectively.


The Peter Principle is a concept in management developed by Laurence J. Peter, which observes that people in a hierarchy tend to rise to their “level of incompetence”. Here are three real-world examples that align with this principle:1. Yahoo and Marissa Mayer – Marissa was a successful executive at Google, where she was instrumental in developing the structure of Google’s user interface. However, when she was later made CEO of Yahoo, the company suffered under her leadership. Mayer had excelled in her former role as a manager, but her performance as CEO led to strategic missteps that caused Yahoo’s performance to drop significantly.2. The Financial Crisis of 2008 – Many have attributed this crisis to the Peter Principle, suggesting that efficient workers who excelled in lower-level roles were promoted to positions of management and decision-making that they were not competent enough to handle. Despite their success and competence at lower levels, these workers’ lack of understanding about complex financial instruments led to disastrous results.3. British Politicians and Brexit – Some political analysts argue that the handling of Brexit demonstrates the Peter Principle. Many of the politicians involved were successful in their previous roles but found themselves in over their heads when dealing with the complexities of negotiating Brexit. Their lack of knowledge about international law, commerce, and diplomacy led to numerous delays, confusion, and an end result that many people were unhappy with.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the Peter Principle?

The Peter Principle is a concept in management theory where the selection of a candidate for a position is based on their performance in their current role, rather than their potential value in the role they are moving into.

Who coined the term ‘Peter Principle’?

The term was first coined by Dr. Laurence J. Peter in his 1968 book, The Peter Principle.

Why is the Peter Principle important in finance and business?

The Peter Principle is an important concept in finance and business because it describes a common problem in many organizational structures: the promotion of employees until they reach a level of incompetence, potentially leading to a negative impact on productivity and morale.

How does the Peter Principle affect a company’s performance?

If an employee is continuously promoted based on current performance rather than their ability to perform in the new role, they may eventually reach a position where they are no longer competent. This could lead to inefficiencies, poor decision-making, and costly mistakes, affecting the overall performance of the company.

Can companies avoid the Peter Principle from happening?

Yes, companies can avoid the Peter Principle by incorporating practices such as thorough assessment processes before promotions, continual training and development for all employees, and by not necessarily assuming that high performance in one role will automatically translate to success in a higher level role.

Does the Peter Principle suggest that all employees will eventually become incompetent?

The Peter Principle does not suggest that all employees will eventually become incompetent, but rather that promoting employees based solely on their performance in their current roles can potentially lead to promotion beyond their level of competency.

Are there real-life examples of the Peter Principle?

While naming specific examples may not be appropriate, the Peter Principle can potentially thrive in any organization where promotions are solely based on existing role performance, without any proper assessment of the employee’s capability to do their new job.

Is Peter Principle applicable only in business organisations?

No, the principle can be applied in any hierarchical structure where promotions are based on current performance, such as government, academic institutions, and non-profit organizations.

Related Finance Terms

  • Hierarchy Incompetence
  • Competency Ladder
  • Promotion Criteria
  • Job Performance
  • Leadership Ability

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