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Perseroan Terbatas (PT)


Perseroan Terbatas (PT) is a term from Indonesia that refers to a limited liability company. In this type of company, the liability of the shareholders is limited to the extent of the share capital they own. It’s commonly associated with private firms in Indonesia, similar to “Ltd.” or “Inc.” in other countries.


The phonetic pronunciation of “Perseroan Terbatas” would be:”Pair-ser-oh-an Ter-bah-tahs”

Key Takeaways

  1. Perseroan Terbatas, commonly known as PT, is an Indonesian term for a Limited Liability company. This business structure limits the liability of its owners or shareholders to the extent of their share capital. Individual shareholders are not personally liable for the company’s debts.
  2. PT is typically formed by at least two individuals or entities. It requires a fairly large minimum capital requirement to be established and is mandatory to be audited annually. It is governed by the laws of the Republic of Indonesia and must be registered with the Ministry of Law and Human Rights.
  3. A major benefit of PT is that it can raise funds by issuing shares to the public, allowing it to scale up operations significantly. Also, it gives the business a credible image which makes it easier to attract partnerships and other business opportunities.


Perseroan Terbatas (PT) is a significant term in business and finance, particularly in Indonesia, because it represents a limited liability company. This term is important because it sets the foundation for a business structure where the company’s liabilities or debts are not extended beyond the investments of its shareholders. This means, shareholders are only liable for the company’s debts to the extent of their invested capital. It encourages entrepreneurship by reducing financial risk to shareholders and fosters economic growth. Understanding the concept of PT is essential while doing business in Indonesia as it has implications for corporate governance, legal obligations, taxation, and investor protection.


Perseroan Terbatas (PT) is a term used in Indonesia to designate a type of business entity or limited liability company. The purpose of this kind of entity is primarily to limit the financial responsibility of the shareholders involved. In this context, the shareholders are only liable up to the extent of their respective ownership stakes in the company, which reduces their potential financial risk. As such, a PT offers a significant layer of financial protection which is instrumental in attracting investors and encouraging entrepreneurship and business growth in the country.

In terms of usage, PTs are widely employed in a variety of sectors within the Indonesian economy. They are popular for both local and foreign investors seeking to establish a commercial presence within Indonesia. Being a PT allows a company to engage in all legal business activities, ranging from small trades to larger industrial and commercial enterprises. To form a PT, specific requirements such as a minimum of two shareholders, a board of directors, a board of commissioners, and a minimum authorized capital must be met. These regulations ensure the proper operation and governance of the PT, thereby fostering trust and confidence among stakeholders and the public at large.


Perseroan Terbatas, commonly abbreviated as PT, is a term used in Indonesia to indicate a limited liability company. It’s a business entity where the owners’ responsibility for the company’s debt is limited by the amount of their investment in the company.

1. PT Astra International Tbk: Known as one of the largest Indonesian companies, PT Astra International operates in various sectors including automotive, financial services, heavy equipment, agribusiness, information technology, and infrastructure.

2. PT Bank Central Asia Tbk (BCA): BCA is one of the largest private banks in Indonesia. It provides a wide range of banking operations and services, from consumer banking and credit cards to corporate banking and treasury.

3. PT Telekomunikasi Indonesia Tbk: This state-owned company is the largest telecommunications services company in Indonesia. It provides network and telecommunications services ranging from wireline and cellular connections to internet service providers and data communications.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is a Perseroan Terbatas (PT)?

A Perseroan Terbatas, commonly abbreviated as PT, is an Indonesian term for a limited liability company.

How does a PT operate?

A PT is governed by its directors, appointed by the shareholders, and is responsible for the company’s daily operations. The shareholders hold ownership stakes but their liability is limited to their shares’ value.

What is the purpose of a PT?

The purpose is to offer a business model where losses do not affect personal assets. It protects shareholders from being personally liable for the company’s debts or financial risks beyond the number of shares they hold.

What is the minimum capital requirement for a PT?

The minimum capital requirement for a PT depends on its size. For a small PT, it’s IDR 50 million, for a medium-sized PT, it’s IDR 500 million, and for a large PT, it’s above IDR 10 billion.

How can a PT be established?

A PT is established through a General Meeting of Shareholders or a notarial deed. The deed is then legalized by the Ministry of Law and Human Rights.

Can foreign investors own a PT?

Yes, foreign investors can own a PT under the name of PT PMA (Perseroan Terbatas Penanaman Modal Asing) but the proportion of shares held may be subject to certain restrictions depending on the business sector.

What kind of taxes does a PT have to pay?

A PT company is subject to several tax obligations, including Corporate Income Tax (25%), Value-Added Tax (10%), and potentially others depending on their sector of activity.

Can a PT issue shares to the public?

A PT can issue shares to the public if it becomes a publicly listed company, known as PT Tbk (Perseroan Terbatas Terbuka). To go public, a PT needs to fulfill several requirements set by the Financial Services Authority.

Is there a difference between PT and PT Tbk?

Yes, a PT is a private company while a PT Tbk refers to a PT that is already listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX).

How is the profits distributed in a PT?

The profits of a PT are generally distributed to shareholders in the form of dividends, which are determined at the General Meeting of Shareholders.

Related Finance Terms

  • Modal Dasar: The minimum amount of capital required to establish a PT.
  • Aktaris: Indonesian term for notary, who is a legal requirement for PT foundation.
  • Penanggung Jawab: The person responsible for a PT’s operation, usually the Director.
  • Anggaran Dasar: The company’s articles of association in Indonesia.
  • Pemegang Saham: Shareholder, individuals or corporations that own shares in the PT.

Sources for More Information

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