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Per Capita


Per capita is a Latin term that translates to “per person.” In finance and economics, it is often used as a unit of measurement to express something on an individual basis among a specific population. Commonly, it is applied to indicators like income or GDP, allowing for a clear comparison of economic well-being across different regions or countries.


The phonetic pronunciation of “Per Capita” is: /pər ˈkæpɪtə/

Key Takeaways

  1. Per Capita is a measure of economic output or income: It refers to the average income, production, or resources per person within a specific region, such as a country or city, and is often used as an indicator to evaluate the overall standard of living.
  2. Per Capita comparisons can reveal disparities and income inequalities: By comparing per capita income or GDP (gross domestic product) data between different regions, we can gain insight into the distribution of wealth, identify areas with high or low levels of development, and determine how effectively resources are being utilized.
  3. Per Capita is not always an accurate representation of living standards: While per capita measures can be useful for comparing average economic performance, they do not capture differences in cost of living or purchasing power across regions. Additionally, they may not account for income inequalities or disparities in access to resources and public services, which can also greatly impact an individual’s quality of life.


The term Per Capita is important in business and finance as it allows for a more accurate comparison of economic indicators across different regions or populations. By measuring variables such as income, GDP, or consumption on a per-person basis, it helps to account for disparities in population size and provides a clearer picture of the average the individual’s well-being in a given area. This facilitates better decision-making among policymakers, businesses, and investors, as it highlights potential growth opportunities, identifies areas in need of improvement, and enables comparisons of living standards and economic performance between various countries or regions.


Per capita is a widely used financial term that plays a crucial role in evaluating the economic health and standard of living across different regions. It allows economists, policy makers, and business professionals to assess the distribution of resources and income within a given population on a per person basis. Calculated by dividing the total resources or income by the total population, this metric helps in drawing fair comparisons between different regions, countries, or groups, irrespective of their population size. By providing valuable insights into the prosperity levels and general welfare of a region, per capita serves as an important benchmarking tool, informing the decision-making process in various sectors. Some common applications of per capita include GDP per capita and income per capita, which aid in understanding a nation’s economic growth and its people’s purchasing power. For example, GDP per capita can be utilized to assess the ability of citizens in a country to access essential services, such as healthcare and education, as well as gauge the overall standard of living. In business contexts, per capita is used to recognize market opportunities, investment potentials, and consumer demands that drive market strategies and resource allocation. Furthermore, it helps in identifying inequalities within a population, making it a critical element in the evaluation and formulation of economic and social policies. Thus, per capita serves as a vital analytical framework, fostering sustainable development and equitable growth across various domains.


Per capita is an economic term used to describe data or statistics in relation to the population of a specific area, such as a country, city, or region. It is often used to compare and analyze the economic well-being, standard of living, or purchasing power of individuals in different locations. Here are three real-world examples of per capita in the context of business and finance: 1. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita: This is a measure of a country’s economic output per person. GDP per capita is calculated by dividing the total GDP of a country by its population. This figure can be used to compare the standard of living and economic health between different countries. For example, as of 2021, the United States has a GDP per capita of around $65,000, while India has a GDP per capita of approximately $2,000. 2. Personal disposable income (PDI) per capita: Personal disposable income is the amount of money that individuals have available to spend or save after paying taxes and receiving government transfers. PDI per capita is calculated by dividing the total personal disposable income of a country or region by its population. This figure can be used to understand the purchasing power of individuals in different locations. For example, a city with a high PDI per capita may indicate a higher quality of living and greater consumption opportunities for its residents, as they have more income to spend. 3. Healthcare expenditure per capita: This metric refers to the amount of money spent on healthcare per person in a given country or region. It is calculated by dividing the total healthcare expenditure by the total population. Healthcare expenditure per capita can be used to compare the quality and access to healthcare services between different locations. For example, as of 2021, the United States has a healthcare expenditure per capita of around $11,000, while Mexico’s healthcare expenditure per capita is approximately $1,100.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What does Per Capita mean?
Per Capita is a Latin term that translates to per person. In the context of finance and business, it is a measure used to express data, such as income or GDP, relative to the population of a specific geographical area, such as a country, city, or region.
How is Per Capita calculated?
Per Capita is calculated by dividing the total amount of a given metric (e.g., GDP, income, or expenses) by the population size of the area being analyzed. For example, if a country’s GDP is $1,000,000 and its population is 50,000, the per capita GDP would be $1,000,000 / 50,000 = $20.
Why is Per Capita used?
Per Capita is used as a means of comparison, as it provides a standard measure allowing comparisons between different regions, countries, or sets of data. This measure is important since it enables a better understanding of relative economic performance, standard of living, and wealth distribution among different populations.
In which fields is Per Capita commonly used?
Per Capita is widely used in various fields such as economics, finance, business, sociology, and demography. It is especially helpful when analyzing macroeconomic indicators, income inequality, and standards of living within different countries or regions.
What are some limitations of using Per Capita?
While Per Capita offers a useful measure for comparison, it has its limitations. It does not account for uneven distributions of wealth, inflation, or differences in purchasing power among various regions and countries. Furthermore, it might not accurately represent the living conditions, as a high per capita income does not always guarantee a high standard of living in reality.
Can Per Capita be used to compare countries with vastly different population sizes?
Yes, Per Capita allows for comparisons between countries with different population sizes, as it accounts for the population by expressing data on a per-person basis. This way, it presents a more accurate representation of the average situation within these countries.
What is the difference between Per Capita Income and GDP Per Capita?
Per Capita Income represents the average income earned by individuals in a specific geographical area, typically reflecting the standard of living and wealth distribution. GDP Per Capita, on the other hand, refers to the average economic output per person, representing the overall economic health and performance of a country or region. Both measures can provide valuable insights into the economic status and well-being of a population.

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