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Passive Foreign Investment Company (PFIC)


A Passive Foreign Investment Company (PFIC) refers to a foreign-based corporation that generates a substantial portion of its income from passive sources such as investments, rather than active business activities. More specifically, a company is considered a PFIC if it meets at least one of the following criteria: 75% or more of its gross income is derived from passive sources, or at least 50% of its assets produce passive income. PFIC status can have significant U.S. tax implications for U.S. shareholders, due to complex reporting requirements and potentially higher tax rates on certain types of PFIC-related income.


Passive Foreign Investment Company (PFIC) can be pronounced in phonetics as:Passive: /ˈpæsɪv/Foreign: /fəˈrɪn/,Investment: /ɪnˈvɛstmənt/,Company: /ˈkʌmpəni/,PFIC: /ˈpiː ˈɛf aɪ ˈsiː/

Key Takeaways

  1. PFICs are foreign-based investment entities: Passive Foreign Investment Companies (PFICs) are non-U.S. corporations or foreign-based investment entities that have either a majority of their income (at least 75%) classified as passive income, or at least 50% of their assets generating passive income, such as dividends, interest, or capital gains.
  2. Tax implications for U.S. investors: U.S. investors who hold shares in a PFIC may face unfavorable tax implications, as they are required to pay U.S. income taxes on their share of the PFIC’s earnings, whether those earnings are distributed or not. This includes the need for investors to file an annual Form 8621 to report PFIC income. There are specific elections that can be made, such as the Qualified Electing Fund (QEF) election or the Mark-to-Market election, which can potentially ease the tax burden.
  3. Complexity and planning considerations: Due to the complexity of PFIC rules, U.S. investors need to carefully plan and manage their investment strategy to avoid unintended tax consequences. Tax planning and education are critical for U.S. taxpayers with investments in PFICs to minimize the tax impact and ensure compliance with IRS requirements.


The term Passive Foreign Investment Company (PFIC) is important in the realm of business and finance because it refers to a foreign-based corporation with predominantly passive income or assets with minimal operational or productive activities. PFIC classifications have significant tax implications for U.S. investors, as investments in these companies can lead to complex and potentially unfavorable tax consequences under the U.S. tax code. Investors may need to navigate intricate reporting requirements and potentially pay higher tax rates on PFIC-related income. Therefore, understanding the PFIC classification and its impact on taxation is crucial for individual and institutional investors to make informed decisions when diversifying their investment portfolios with foreign assets and minimize tax burdens.


The Passive Foreign Investment Company (PFIC) is a regulatory framework designed by the United States tax authorities to address the challenges of taxing income generated by U.S. taxpayers through overseas investments. These regulations aim to prevent U.S. taxpayers from deferring their tax liability or converting ordinary income into lower-taxed capital gains by holding their investments in offshore funds. Consequently, the PFIC regime serves to level the playing field for both domestic and foreign investments, ensuring that U.S. taxpayers cannot exploit foreign investment vehicles to avoid fair taxation. Given the complexities of international tax laws and regulations, the PFIC rules also encourage transparency in the reporting of multinational investment income.

Investors who hold shares in a PFIC are subject to stringent tax filing requirements and special tax treatments. This generally means that any income or gain realized from a PFIC investment is taxed at the highest ordinary income tax rate, rather than the more favorable rates applied to long-term capital gains or qualified dividends. Additionally, the tax liability is compounded with interest charges for the period of deferral. To avoid such unfavorable tax consequences, investors may choose to comply with the Qualified Electing Fund (QEF) election or the Mark-to-Market (MTM) election. Both of these elections allow taxpayers to report their share of income and gains annually, and be taxed accordingly. The adoption of the PFIC regime not only discourages investors from using offshore structures to minimize their tax exposure, but also fosters a culture of transparency and compliance, ensuring a fair allocation of global investment opportunities.


Example 1: Vanguard FTSE Developed Markets ETF –  (VEA)Vanguard FTSE Developed Markets ETF is an American-based exchange-traded fund (ETF) that seeks to track the performance of the FTSE Developed All Cap ex US Index. This index includes stocks of companies from developed countries, excluding the United States. Since this ETF invests primarily in foreign assets, it can be classified as a Passive Foreign Investment Company (PFIC) from the perspective of the U.S. shareholders.

Example 2: iShares MSCI EAFE ETF (EFA – )iShares MSCI EAFE ETF is another ETF that holds a diversified portfolio of stocks from large and mid-cap companies across developed markets in Europe, Australasia, and the Far East. As a U.S.-based investor investing in this ETF, you would be exposed to international stocks outside the U.S, thereby meeting the requirements of a PFIC.

Example 3: Individual investments in a foreign-based mutual fund – Suppose an American investor decides to invest in a popular mutual fund based in the United Kingdom, which focuses on European or Asian equities. In this case, the U.K. mutual fund would likely be considered a PFIC for U.S. tax purposes as it primarily consists of foreign income-producing assets, and the investor would be subject to PFIC tax regulations.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is a Passive Foreign Investment Company (PFIC)?

A Passive Foreign Investment Company (PFIC) is a foreign-based corporation that has either at least 75% of its income classified as passive income or at least 50% of its assets generating passive income. Passive income includes dividends, interest, royalties, rent, and capital gains, among other sources.

How does the IRS determine if a company is a PFIC?

The IRS uses two tests, the Income Test and the Asset Test, to determine if a foreign company qualifies as a PFIC. If the company meets either of these tests, it is considered a PFIC. The Income Test checks if the foreign company has 75% or more of its gross income classified as passive income. The Asset Test checks if the foreign company has 50% or more of its assets producing passive income.

Why are PFICs subject to specific taxation rules in the U.S.?

PFICs are subject to specific taxation rules by the IRS because they are considered as potential tax avoidance vehicles. U.S. persons who invest in foreign companies can potentially defer the taxation on passive income, such as interest or dividends, that are not subject to immediate taxation. PFIC rules aim to prevent this deferral of taxation.

What are the tax implications of investing in a PFIC for U.S. taxpayers?

U.S. taxpayers who hold shares in a PFIC face unique tax implications. There are three main tax reporting methods for PFICs: 1) Excess Distribution Method, 2) Qualified Electing Fund (QEF) Election Method, and 3) Mark-to-Market Election Method. Each method has its own calculations and specific tax treatment, and it is advisable for taxpayers to consult a tax professional to determine the best approach for their situation.

What is a Qualified Electing Fund (QEF)?

A Qualified Electing Fund (QEF) is an election that a U.S. taxpayer can make regarding a PFIC investment. If the PFIC provides the necessary information to the shareholder, the shareholder can choose to treat the PFIC as a QEF, allowing the taxpayer to avoid the punitive Excess Distribution Method taxation. QEF treatment requires the taxpayer to include their prorated share of QEF income on their annual tax return.

Can a PFIC be avoided by investing through a U.S.-based mutual fund?

Investing in a PFIC through a U.S.-based mutual fund does not necessarily avoid PFIC tax implications, as the U.S.-based fund itself can qualify as a shareholder of the PFIC. Shareholders of the mutual fund are considered indirect shareholders of the PFIC and may still face PFIC tax implications. Consult a tax professional for advice on individual situations.

What are the tax reporting requirements for U.S. taxpayers with PFIC investments?

U.S. taxpayers with PFIC investments must report their PFIC holdings on Form 8621, “Information Return by a Shareholder of a Passive Foreign Investment Company or Qualified Electing Fund,” which should be filed with their annual tax return. The reporting requirements depend on the taxpayer’s chosen tax treatment method (Excess Distribution Method, QEF Election Method, or Mark-to-Market Election Method) and may vary based on the individual’s situation.

Related Finance Terms

  • Qualified Electing Fund (QEF)
  • Annual PFIC Income
  • Excess Distribution
  • Foreign Personal Holding Company Income (FPHCI)
  • Look-through Rule

Sources for More Information


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