Close this search box.

Table of Contents

Organizational Economics


Organizational Economics is a branch of economics that studies the roles of structures, processes, and mechanisms within organizations. It uses economic theories and analytical tools to understand and design effective organizational strategies and practices. It also focuses on the interactions and relationships between organizational members and the ways they impact the overall economic outcomes.


The phonetics of the keyword “Organizational Economics” would be: ˌɔːrɡənaɪˈzeɪʃənl iːkəˈnɒmɪks

Key Takeaways

  1. Focuses on Roles and Relationships: Organizational Economics is a branch of economics that studies the structures and systems within an organisation. It closely examines the roles, relationships and interactions between employers, employees, management, and their impact on the productivity and efficiency of the organization. It aims to understand the methods and practices that can enhance the overall economic performance of the organization.
  2. Decision-making Process: Organizational Economics emphasizes understanding and improving the decision-making process within an organization. It explores how decisions are made, who makes them, how information is disseminated and used, and how all these factors contribute to the overall performance and success of the organization. The theory posits that better decision-making processes can lead to improved economic results.
  3. The Role of Incentives and Contracts: A critical aspect of Organizational Economics is the role of incentives and contracts in motivating and aligning the interests of individuals within the organization. Such mechanisms can be employed effectively to direct the behaviour of employees towards the achievement of organizational goals, thereby increasing efficiency and productivity. This field also studies how different contract types can influence behaviors and outcomes within the organization.


Organizational Economics is important because it offers a comprehensive understanding of the structure, strategy, and outcomes of organizations by applying economic theory. It allows for strategic decision-making by analyzing relationships within the organization, including those between shareholders and managers, or between different divisions within a larger corporation, using key economic concepts such as incentives, information management, and risk allocation. It studies aspects like transaction costs, property rights, and agency theory. The ultimate goal is to optimize operational efficiency, drive productivity, and enhance the overall growth of the organization by making informed decisions based on these economic elements. Consequently, it plays a vital role in shaping successful business strategies and policy formulations, leading to more robust and competitive organizations.


Organizational Economics is a branch of economics that deals with the internal workings of businesses and organizations. The main purpose of this area is to understand the structure, design, and performance characteristics of organizations and the behavior of participants within those organizations. It investigates how various organizations are established, maintained, and evolve over time, looking at how decision-making processes are influenced by differing organizational structures. It’s all about helping firms optimize their functionality, improve the allocation of resources, enhance coordination and control mechanisms, and establish effective incentive systems.The use of Organizational Economics plays a pivotal role in shaping strategic decision-making within businesses. For instance, it aids businesses and economists in deciding between using a market solution versus an internal solution to accomplish a desired task or objective. In essence, it answers the question of when a firm should outsource a task or handle it internally. Moreover, it helps firms generate strategies to manage and control issues related to agency problems, data asymmetry, transaction costs, and property rights. The tools developed out of Organizational Economics can lead to improved competitiveness, efficiency, and sustainability within firms.


1. Google’s Structure: One example of organizational economics in action is Google’s decision to restructure under a parent company called Alphabet Inc. in 2015. They did so to facilitate the management of different business lines, such as Google, YouTube, and Android. The reorganization allowed Alphabet to focus on different sectors under separate divisions, each operating almost like its own firm.2. UPS Logistics: The logistics and supply chain management of United Parcel Service (UPS) also reflects organizational economics. By strategically locating their hubs, optimizing routes, and choreographing each delivery driver’s day, they minimize cost and maximize efficiency. Their decisions about how to organize the business directly impact their bottom line.3. Toyota’s Lean Production: Toyota’s philosophy of “lean production” is another example. Their famous approach involves minimizing waste while increasing productivity. This is achieved through effectively organizing all aspects of production – from design to assembly to sales. Their methods, aimed at reducing costs and improving efficiency, reflect principles of organizational economics.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Organizational Economics?

Organizational Economics is a branch of economics that studies the roles of institutions in influencing economic behavior, focusing on ways to manage and organize these institutions.

What are the core concepts of Organizational Economics?

The core concepts include agency theory, transaction cost economics, and property rights theory, which are all employed to assess, analyze, and optimize the structure and boundaries of firms.

Why is Organizational Economics important?

Organizational Economics can help businesses and firms understand the best ways to structure their operations, make decisions, mitigate potential conflicts, and maximize productivity and efficiency.

Is Organizational Economics only applicable to business organizations?

While the name suggests an exclusive focus on business organizations, its principles can also be applied to non-profit organizations, governmental bodies, and other kinds of institutions.

What does ‘Transaction Cost’ mean in Organizational Economics?

Transaction costs refer to the costs involved in making an economic exchange. This can include research, negotiation, and enforcement costs. Minimizing these costs is a key focus in organizational economics.

How does Agency Theory apply to Organizational Economics?

Agency Theory considers the conflicts that can arise in business relationships when one party (the agent) is expected to act in the best interest of the other party (the principal). It is relevant in Organizational Economics because it helps to explore how contracts can be designed to ensure that both parties’ interests align.

What is the Property Rights Theory in Organizational Economics?

The Property Rights Theory, in the context of Organizational Economics, refers to the idea that individuals or firms will make more efficient decisions if they have a stake in the outcomes. The allocation of such rights can significantly affect an organization’s productivity and profitability.

How does Organizational Economics influence decision-making in a firm?

Knowledge of Organizational Economics supports decision-making in areas such as resource allocation, strategic planning, governance structure, and risk management. It provides insights into how different organizational designs and arrangements can impact a firm’s performance.

Can Organizational Economics help in improving managerial practices?

Yes, it can provide insight into how different incentive structures, authority distribution, or decision-making protocols can lead to improved performance and reduced internal conflict. It can help managers design more effective organizational structures.

Will incorporating Organizational Economics principles guarantee business success?

While Organizational Economics can provide valuable insights and tools to improve organizational efficiency and decision-making, it’s one of many factors that contribute to business success. External factors, market conditions, and business models also play vital roles.

Related Finance Terms

  • Transaction Cost Economics
  • Principal-Agent Theory
  • Resource Allocation
  • Information Asymmetry
  • Incentive Structures

Sources for More Information

About Our Editorial Process

At Due, we are dedicated to providing simple money and retirement advice that can make a big impact in your life. Our team closely follows market shifts and deeply understands how to build REAL wealth. All of our articles undergo thorough editing and review by financial experts, ensuring you get reliable and credible money advice.

We partner with leading publications, such as Nasdaq, The Globe and Mail, Entrepreneur, and more, to provide insights on retirement, current markets, and more.

We also host a financial glossary of over 7000 money/investing terms to help you learn more about how to take control of your finances.

View our editorial process

About Our Journalists

Our journalists are not just trusted, certified financial advisers. They are experienced and leading influencers in the financial realm, trusted by millions to provide advice about money. We handpick the best of the best, so you get advice from real experts. Our goal is to educate and inform, NOT to be a ‘stock-picker’ or ‘market-caller.’ 

Why listen to what we have to say?

While Due does not know how to predict the market in the short-term, our team of experts DOES know how you can make smart financial decisions to plan for retirement in the long-term.

View our expert review board

About Due

Due makes it easier to retire on your terms. We give you a realistic view on exactly where you’re at financially so when you retire you know how much money you’ll get each month. Get started today.

Due Fact-Checking Standards and Processes

To ensure we’re putting out the highest content standards, we sought out the help of certified financial experts and accredited individuals to verify our advice. We also rely on them for the most up to date information and data to make sure our in-depth research has the facts right, for today… Not yesterday. Our financial expert review board allows our readers to not only trust the information they are reading but to act on it as well. Most of our authors are CFP (Certified Financial Planners) or CRPC (Chartered Retirement Planning Counselor) certified and all have college degrees. Learn more about annuities, retirement advice and take the correct steps towards financial freedom and knowing exactly where you stand today. Learn everything about our top-notch financial expert reviews below… Learn More