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Non-Farm Payroll


Non-Farm Payroll (NFP) is a monthly report released by the U.S. Department of Labor that shows the total number of paid workers in the country, excluding farm employees, government workers, private household employees, and non-profit organization employees. It serves as a key economic indicator that helps analysts understand the state of unemployment and job growth in the U.S. The NFP report often influences the financial market, including the stock market and the value of the U.S. dollar.


The phonetic pronunciation of “Non-Farm Payroll” is: Non: /nɒn/Farm: /fɑːrm/Payroll: /ˈpeɪroʊl/

Key Takeaways

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  1. Indicator of Economic Health: Non-Farm Payroll (NFP) refers to the total number of paid U.S. workers, excluding farm employees, private household employees, and non-profit organization employees. It is a significant economic indicator used to assess the overall health of the economy. Higher NFP numbers often indicate a growing economy, whereas lower numbers might suggest an economic downturn.
  2. Impacts Monetary Policy: The NFP is a valuable tool for central banks like the Federal Reserve to determine monetary policies. High employment rates might lead to an increase in interest rates to curb inflation, while lower employment rates could result in lowering interest rates to stimulate economic growth.
  3. Affects Financial Markets: The release of NFP data creates volatility in financial markets. Traders anticipate these numbers, as they can impact currency, bond, and stock markets around the world. A strong NFP report will usually strengthen the U.S. dollar due to the prospect of higher interest rates, while a weak report could lead to a depreciation of the currency.


The Non-Farm Payroll (NFP) is an important business and finance term because it is a key economic indicator used primarily in the United States. It represents the total number of paid workers, excluding farm employees, self-employed workers, private household employees, and those working for non-profit organizations. Investors, economists, and policymakers closely monitor NFP data because it provides a comprehensive snapshot of the nation’s economic activity and health, including trends in hiring and wages. Higher-than-expected NFP numbers can signal a strong economy, possibly leading to currency appreciation, while lower-than-expected numbers can indicate a weakening economy, potentially leading to currency depreciation. This makes the NFP report particularly significant in forex and bond markets.


The Non-Farm Payroll (NFP) serves essentially as a measure of economic health. It is a significant economic indicator used by economists, financial analysts, investors, and government agencies to assess the state of the U.S. economy, as it provides data representing the total number of paid U.S. workers, excluding farm workers, private household employees, and non-profit organization employees. Collected monthly by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), the NFP report provides insights into trends in job growth and labor market tightening, which are essential elements of economic stability and growth.The purpose of the NFP report has a broad impact on various aspects of the economy. Policymakers, like the Federal Reserve, use it to inform monetary policies. A strong NFP report indicates a robust economy, potentially leading to increased interest rates to control inflation, while a weak NFP could lead to a reduction in interest rates as a stimulus measure. For investors and financial analysts, the NFP serves as an informative tool in decision-making processes regarding investments, as it can indicate economic trends and future movements in the stock, bond, and foreign exchange markets. By doing so, the Non-Farm Payroll plays a crucial role in guiding both macroeconomic policy and individual investment strategies.


Non-farm payroll (NFP) refers to any job outside of farms, non-profit organizations, private household services and the military. It is a significant economic indicator used by economists, analysts, and investors. Here are three real world examples:1. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Report: Every month, the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics releases an NFP report that represents the total number of paid U.S. workers, excluding farm employees, government employees, private households employees and non-profit organizations. This comprehensive report often triggers substantial market movements.2. Economic Forecasting: An example of NFP being used is by economists who rely on the changes in non-farm payroll employment to forecast other important economic indicators, such as the consumer spending capabilities. For instance, in a scenario where NFP numbers show significant growth, it could suggest that more people are earning salaries and may therefore spend more. This could lead economists to predict a possible boost in the economy.3. Impact on Currency Markets: Non-farm payroll numbers are closely watched by forex traders around the globe. For instance, when the NFP data in the US shows a significant increase, it might result in the appreciation of the USD against other currencies. On the other hand, lower than expected NFP data can cause a devaluation of the USD. Therefore, financial entities like forex trading companies and banks base their strategic decisions to buy, sell, or hold currencies based on NFP data.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Non-Farm Payroll?

Non-Farm Payroll (NFP) is a term used in the U.S. to refer to any job outside of farms, private households, and non-profit organizations. The U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics releases its data on the first Friday of each month, reflecting the previous month’s data.

Why is Non-Farm Payroll important?

The NFP report is highly significant because it measures the number of jobs added or lost in the economy over the last month, not including the farming industry. This data can significantly influence the financial market.

How does Non-Farm Payroll affect the economy?

The NFP report can influence all financial markets, including the forex market. Higher or rising employment figures may lead to a rise in consumption and potentially a rise in inflation, which may lead the central bank to increase interest rates.

What elements does the Non-Farm Payroll report usually include?

The report usually includes information about the unemployment rate, average hour earnings, the change in the number of jobs in different sectors of the economy, and the length of the average workweek.

How is Non-Farm Payroll data collected?

The data is gathered by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics through a monthly survey called the Current Employment Statistics (CES) survey. The survey is sent to approximately 145,000 businesses and government agencies representing around 697,000 individual worksites.

How does a higher or lower NFP number affect the stock and forex markets?

Generally, a higher NFP number that surpasses forecast figures indicates a robust economy and can lead to an appreciation of the domestic currency value. Conversely, a decrease or lower than expected NFP figure might indicate a weakening economy, leading to a depreciation of the domestic currency value.

Related Finance Terms

  • Unemployment Rate
  • Labor Force Participation Rate
  • Job Creation Rate
  • Hourly Earnings
  • Private Sector Jobs

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