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Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC)


A Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC) is a type of financial institution that provides various banking services, but does not hold a banking license. Unlike banks, NBFCs cannot accept demand deposits and don’t form part of the payment and settlement system. They are primarily involved in lending, acquisition of shares, leasing, insurance, and similar activities.


The phonetic pronunciation of “Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC)” is: Non-Banking: /nɒn ˈbæŋkɪŋ/ Financial: /fɪˈnænʃəl/ Company: /ˈkʌmpəni/ NBFC: /ˈɛn ˈbiː ˈɛf ˈsiː/

Key Takeaways

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  1. Non-Banking Financial Companies, or NBFCs, are a vital component of the Indian financial system, supplementing the functions of banks by providing financial services and banking functions without meeting the legal definitions of a bank.
  2. NBFCs play an essential role in promoting inclusive growth in the country, by catering to the diverse financial needs of bank excluded customers. They offer a variety of banking services, such as loans and credit facilities, retirement planning, money markets, underwriting, and merger activities.
  3. Despite their similarities to banks, NBFCs cannot accept demand deposits, issue cheque drawn on itself, or form part of the payment and settlement system. However, they are covered under the Credit Information Companies (Regulation) Act, 2005 of Reserve Bank of India which means that all their transactions and customer data are secure and regulated.



Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFC) play a critical role in the economy as they provide essential financial services, especially to small businesses and individuals who may not meet the stringent requirements set by traditional banks. They are important for promoting financial inclusion by reaching out to unbanked regions and offering credit to underprivileged sections of society. NBFCs also aid in diversifying investment portfolios and contribute to the stability of the financial system by helping to prevent the concentration of financial resources in a limited number of banks. Their ability to innovate makes them capable of addressing niche sectors, thereby stimulating economic growth. Thus, the significance of NBFCs lies in their accessibility, diversity, and functionality, helping to sustain overall economic momentum.


Non-Banking Financial Companies, often referred to as NBFCs, serve a pivotal role in the financial system by providing banking services without meeting the legal definition of a bank. NBFCs have the essential purpose of offering banking facilities to rural areas, small scale industries, and businesses that are usually neglected by traditional banks. These institutions significantly contribute to the growth of the economy by promoting diversified and inclusive growth, and they play a pivotal role in meeting the financial needs of micro, small, and medium-sized businesses, which can enhance entrepreneurship and promote job growth.NBFCs offer a range of financial services, including loans and credit facilities, leases, retirement planning, money markets, underwriting, and merger activities. They are instrumental in providing innovative financial solutions to unbanked sectors. Moreover, they play a crucial role in providing resourceful back-up facilities for industries. While they are similar to banks, it is important to note that NBFCs can’t accept demand deposits or issue cheques drawn on itself, making them a different type of financial institution, with their own set of purposes and uses.


1. Bajaj Finance Limited: Founded in 1987, Bajaj Finance Limited is a leading NBFC in India. This company provides a variety of loans such as personal loans, home loans, and business loans. Additionally, they offer wealth advisory services, fixed deposits, and insurance services. Despite not having a formal banking license, Bajaj Finance is allowed to perform most of the functions of a bank.2. Lending Club: Based in the United States, Lending Club is a peer-to-peer lending company, considered an NBFC. They act as a financial intermediary by providing a platform that matches borrowers and investors, thereby, facilitating personal loans, business loans, and auto refinancing.3. Avant, Inc.: Hailing from Chicago, Avant is a private online personal loan lender and an NBFC, offering technology-based financial support to middle-income customers. They grant personal loans ranging from $2,000 to $35,000 with lending and servicing facilitated by WebBank. Although it does not accept deposits like a traditional bank, it extends credit and helps in the growth of the economy.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is a Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC)?

An NBFC, or Non-Banking Financial Company, is a financial institution that provides banking services without holding a banking license. These institutions are not allowed to take traditional demand deposits (money deposited in a bank account that can be withdrawn at any time, like checking or savings accounts) from the public.

How does an NBFC differ from a traditional bank?

While an NBFC may perform services similar to a bank, there are a few key differences. The most significant is that an NBFC cannot accept demand deposits. They also are not part of the payment and settlement system and cannot issue cheques drawn on itself.

What kind of services do NBFCs provide?

Services provided by NBFCs may include loans and credit facilities, leasing, retirement planning, money markets, underwriting, and merger activities.

Are NBFCs regulated, and if so, by whom?

NBFCs are regulated, in India, primarily by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) under the RBI Act of 1934 and the directions issued under this Act. This ensures transparency and accountability in operations of NBFCs.

Can anyone open an account with an NBFC?

Most NBFCs serve only businesses and commercial clients, but some offer services to individual consumers as well. The specific requirements and eligibility criteria to open an account or do business with an NBFC can vary from one institution to another.

How safe is it to invest with an NBFC?

Like any investment, there is a risk involved in investing with an NBFC. However, since the NBFCs are regulated and are required to adhere to certain laid-out standards, they are generally considered safe. It’s always wise to research and understand the workings of the particular NBFC before investing.

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