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Net Domestic Product (NDP)


Net Domestic Product (NDP) is an economic measure of a country’s total economic production that accounts for depreciation. It is obtained by subtracting depreciation from the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Therefore, NDP provides a more accurate reflection of a nation’s wealth by considering the wear and tear on its capital goods.


Net Domestic Product (NDP) in phonetics is pronounced as: /nɛt doʊˈmɛstɪk prəˈdʌkt/

Key Takeaways

<ol> <li>Net Domestic Product Calculation</li> <p>Net Domestic Product (NDP) is calculated by subtracting the depreciation on a country’s capital goods from its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The formula for NDP is: NDP = GDP – depreciation. It gives a more precise representation of an economy’s sustainability by factoring the capital goods consumed or depreciated over an accounting period.</p> <li>Best Measure of Economic Welfare</li> <p>NDP is often considered to be a better measure of social well-being than GDP because it takes into account the wear and tear on a country’s infrastructure and equipment. GDP might portray a healthy economy on the surface, but NDP uncovers the hidden costs, namely depreciation – offering a more holistic picture.</p> <li>Economic Growth and Sustainability</li> <p>A growing NDP means that an economy is producing more goods and services, and not just replacing worn-out or obsolete equipment and infrastructure. An increasing NDP over time is often seen as a sign that an economy is on a sustainable growth path, making it particularly relevant for policy-makers and economists focused on long-term economic development.</p></ol>


Net Domestic Product (NDP) is an important term in business and finance as it provides an indicator of the economic health of a country by depicting the overall economic output after accounting for capital depreciation. By excluding the wear and tear on equipment and infrastructure (capital depreciation) from Gross Domestic Product (GDP), NDP gives a more accurate measure of an economy’s sustainable production levels. This allows economists and policymakers to understand the pace at which a nation needs to replace its depreciated capital and whether its economic policies are sustainable in the long run. Therefore, NDP serves as a vital tool for economic forecasting and planning.


Net Domestic Product (NDP) serves as a crucial economic indicator that allows economists and policymakers to assess the overall health and sustainability of an economy. It reflects the total value of all goods and services produced within a country (also known as Gross Domestic Product or GDP) over a specified period, minus the depreciation on the country’s capital goods like machinery, equipment and buildings. It provides a more accurate image of an economy’s production capability by considering the depreciation of the assets that are used in the production process.As such, NDP is extensively used for macroeconomic analysis and forecasting. If the NDP is growing, it generally indicates that the economy is in a healthy state, and vice versa. Additionally, by comparing the NDP and GDP, analysts can gain insights into the level of capital depreciation in an economy. A large gap between these two metrics could signal that the nation’s capital stock is rapidly deteriorating, which might affect future productive capacity. Consequently, NDP serves as an essential tool for formulating economic policies and planning future economic growth.


1. Manufacturing Industry: A car manufacturing company in the United States reports a gross domestic product (GDP) of $50 million for a fiscal year. However, throughout that year, it incurs a depreciation of $10 million on its machinery and other capital equipment. The net domestic product (NDP) for the company would then be $40 million ($50 million GDP minus $10 million depreciation).2. Agriculture Sector: Suppose the total market value of all the final goods and services produced within a country like Brazil in the agricultural sector in a certain year is $200 billion. If we subtract the depreciation of farm equipment and infrastructure that is $20 billion, the net domestic product becomes $180 billion. 3. Service Industry: Let’s take the example of India’s service industry that includes sectors like IT, telecommunications, etc. If the reported GDP from this sector is $1 trillion in a given year, with a calculated depreciation of $200 billion on its various infrastructure and assets, the NDP for the Indian service industry would be $800 billion ($1 trillion GDP minus $200 billion depreciation).

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Net Domestic Product (NDP)?

Net Domestic Product is a measure of the economic output of a country, taking Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and subtracting depreciation on a country’s capital goods like factories, machines, and vehicles.

How is the NDP calculated?

NDP is calculated by taking the GDP, which is the total market value of the goods and services produced by a country’s economy and deducting the depreciation on its capital goods.

Who uses NDP and why?

Economists and policymakers use NDP to assess the health and vitality of an economy. It provides a more accurate representation of growth or decline, as it accounts for capital goods’ depreciation.

How is NDP different from GDP?

GDP measures the total output produced within a country’s borders, while NDP takes GDP and adjusts for depreciation – the loss of value over time due to wear and tear on capital goods.

What does a rising NDP indicate?

A rising NDP usually means economic growth and can signal a healthy economy. It suggests that the nation’s total output of goods and services exceeds the depreciation of its capital goods.

What does a falling NDP mean?

A falling NDP could mean the depreciation on capital goods exceeds the production of new goods and services, indicating a slowing or declining economy.

Why do we need to subtract depreciation to get NDP from GDP?

Depreciation is subtracted to account for the wear and tear on capital goods. If depreciation isn’t considered, we would overestimate the value of goods and services produced by an economy, as we wouldn’t account for the declining value of the capital used to produce these goods and services.

Can GDP be greater than NDP?

Yes, GDP is almost always greater than NDP because GDP does not take into account depreciation, while NDP does.

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