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Money refers to any medium of exchange that is widely accepted in transactions for goods and services within an economy. In its most common form, it is a system of physical tokens or digital records accepted as payments. It serves three main functions: a medium of exchange, a unit of account, and a store of value.


The phonetic spelling of the word “Money” is /ˈmʌni/.

Key Takeaways

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  1. Money is a medium of exchange: It functions as an intermediary in trade to avoid the inconvenience of a pure barter system and allows for easier and more efficient transactions.
  2. Money acts as a store of value: This means that money can be saved and used for future purchases, providing security and predictability for financial planning and decision-making.
  3. Money is a unit of account: It provides a benchmark for measuring the economic value of goods and services. This common measure simplifies comparison and understanding of relative values in markets.



Money is important within the realm of business and finance due to its fundamental role as a medium of exchange in economic activities. It facilitates various transactions, such as buying and selling goods and services, investing in ventures, and lending to others, making it an essential element in the operation and growth of businesses. Without money, it would be challenging to determine the value of goods and services, resulting in inefficiency in trade and difficulty in managing resources. Furthermore, money provides a measure of value, a store of wealth, and a standard of deferred payment, thus it is integral to financial planning, budgeting, saving, and investing. Therefore, understanding the concept of money is critical for any individual or organization involved in business and finance.


Money serves as a medium of exchange in an economy, allowing goods, services, and resources to change hands efficiently. It eliminates the need for a barter system where direct exchange of goods would often result in discrepancies in value perception and the challenge of matching wants. Money provides a standardized measure of value, which facilitates fair and equitable trade. It helps buyers and sellers reach a consensus on value quickly and more efficiently.Additionally, money serves as a store of value, permitting individuals and businesses to save and use their purchasing power for future transactions. It simplifies future financial planning and allows for the creation of complex financial structures and products. It is a unit of account, providing a universal measure for economic activities, ensuring comparability across different products, services, regions, and periods. Without money, measuring economic progress and implementing effective economic policy would be incredibly challenging.


1. Personal Savings: A vast majority of people earn money through employment. They might choose to save their income in a bank account, accumulating money not only through their earnings, but also through interest paid by the bank. This accumulated money can then be used in the event of an emergency, to finance large purchases, or to fund important life events, such as education or retirement.2. Business Transactions: A typical marketplace transaction involves money as an exchange medium for goods or services. For instance, when you go to a grocery store, you pick out the items you need and then pay for them by giving the cashier a certain amount of money, determined by the collective price of your items.3. Investment: Investment is a common method of using money to generate wealth. For instance, a person might invest their money into buying shares of a particular company’s stock. If the company performs well, the value of the stock could increase, and if the person decides to sell their shares, they could earn more money than they initially invested.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the definition of money in the field of finance and business?

Money is a medium of exchange for goods, services or resources in an economy. It is defined by features like acceptability, divisibility, durability, portability, stability and scarcity.

Are there different forms of money?

Yes, money can take various forms including physical currency such as coins and bills, or digital form such as bank account balances, electronic fund transfers, cryptocurrencies etc.

What are the primary functions of money?

Money serves three primary functions: it acts as a medium of exchange, a unit of account and a store of value.

How does money affect the economy?

The supply and circulation of money in the economy play a significant role in determining the pace of economic growth, inflation rate, and employment levels.

What is the relationship between money and inflation?

Inflation happens when there is a general increase in the price level of goods and services in an economy. This could occur when there’s too much money in circulation in relation to the volume of goods and services available.

How is the value of money determined?

The value of money is determined by the supply and demand of goods and services in an economy. It’s also influenced by the monetary policy set by the country’s central bank.

Can money lose its value?

Yes, money can lose its value through a process known as inflation, where the general level of prices in an economy increases over time.

What is a monetary system?

A monetary system is a framework used by an economy to manage, organize and control the money supply. This includes institutions such as central banks, treasuries, and policy-making bodies.

What is the concept of ‘time value of money’ in finance?

The time value of money is a concept that suggests money available now is worth more than the same amount in the future due to its potential earning capacity.

What is meant by ‘legal tender’ when referring to money?

Legal tender refers to money that is recognized by the government as suitable for all public and private debts. For example, coins and banknotes are considered legal tender in their country of origin.

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