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Modified Gross Lease


A Modified Gross Lease is a type of real estate rental agreement where the tenant pays base rent at the lease’s inception, but they also share some of the building’s operating costs with the landlord. Such operating expenses can include property taxes, utilities, insurance, and maintenance. The specific costs shared vary depending on the terms of the individual lease agreement.


The phonetics for “Modified Gross Lease” is “muh-dahy-fahyd grohs lees”.

Key Takeaways

Sure, here it is:

  1. Landlord and Tenant Responsibilities: In a Modified Gross Lease, both landlord and tenant share the responsibility for the property’s operational costs. This often includes property taxes, insurance, and maintenance expenses, but the allocation can vary based on the specific terms of the lease agreement.
  2. Cost Predictability: Modified Gross Leases allow tenants to better predict their expenses because they usually pay a fixed rent and some operational costs directly. This gives tenants more control and visibility over the property’s operational expenses and can also protect them from unexpected increases in costs.
  3. Flexibility: Modified Gross Leases offer flexibility because the terms, including which operational costs are borne by the landlord and the tenant, can be negotiated and customized according to the specific needs and circumstances of both parties. This can be beneficial for both landlords and tenants and can lead to more equitable leasing agreements.


A Modified Gross Lease is important in the realm of business and finance, particularly in the commercial real estate sector. This type of lease typically requires the tenant to pay base rent and a portion of the property’s operating expenses, which could include utilities, maintenance, taxes, and insurance. The division of expenses provides a middle ground between a gross lease, where the landlord bears all operating expenses, and a net lease, where the tenant absorbs all these costs. This lease model is significant as it offers a more balanced, flexible arrangement that can be negotiated to fit the specific needs of both parties. Among its advantages are easier budgeting for tenants since some costs are fixed, and cost-sharing that might reduce financial strain on the landlord.


A Modified Gross Lease serves to bridge gaps between tenant and landlord with an equitable approach to distributing property-related costs typically surrounding commercial real estate agreements. In this type of lease, embedded costs such as common area maintenance or utilities, property taxes and property insurance are generally included within the rental rates set by the landlord. The purpose is to create an equitable sharing of the expenses linked to the property, reducing uncertainties or disputes about cost allocations between the landlord and tenant.In a commercial context, a Modified Gross Lease is used to strike a balance between the extremes of gross lease and net lease structures in commercial real estate. This type of lease works to functionally allocate the risk and responsibilities for operational costs, thus reducing the burden of cost variability that a tenant may face in a triple net lease scenario. This kind of agreement can be highly beneficial in cases where property costs are variable or unpredictable, providing a measure of cost certainty to the tenant, while still ensuring the landlord’s costs are covered.


1. Office Building Lease: In many urban office buildings, a modified gross lease is often used. This type of contract usually states that the landlord covers utility costs, maintenance fees, and property taxes, while the tenant is responsible for their own interior space. For instance, a company leasing office space on the fifth floor of a commercial building may have a modified gross lease specifying that they would pay for their own janitorial services and interior repairs, but the landlord would still take care of building security or elevator maintenance.2. Retail Spaces: In a shopping mall or plaza, businesses often operate under a modified gross lease. The landlord might be responsible for main common area maintenance like snow removal, parking cleaning, or landscape upkeep, but individual store owners would pay for their own electricity, gas or waste disposal costs. For example, a fast-food restaurant in a strip mall could be held responsible for its own utilities, minor repair costs and perhaps even a share of the property taxes, while the landlord handles major repairs and common area maintenance.3. Warehouse Lease: An industrial business leasing a warehouse may enter a modified gross lease with the property owner. Under this agreement, the tenant might be responsible for electricity, heat, and other utilities directly associated with their activities. The landlord would cover major repairs and general exterior maintenance of the property. For example, a company leasing a warehouse to store and distribute products might take care of interior cleanup and utilities, while the landlord would be responsible for repairing the roof or paying for property-related insurance.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is a Modified Gross Lease?

A Modified Gross Lease is a type of real estate rental agreement where the tenant pays the base rent at the lease’s inception, but the landlord and tenant share the operational costs and responsibility of insurance, taxes, and maintenance of the property.

How does a Modified Gross Lease differ from a Triple Net Lease?

While both types of leases involve expense sharing, the primary difference lies in the distribution of costs. In a Modified Gross Lease, the landlord typically handles most property expenses using the rent payment, whereas in a Triple Net Lease, the tenant is directly responsible for all or nearly all property expenses on top of their rent payment.

Are utilities included in a Modified Gross Lease?

Not always. Depending on the terms of the lease, the tenant may be responsible for their utility costs. This detail should be clearly stated in the lease agreement before signing.

Is a Modified Gross Lease more beneficial to the tenant or the landlord?

It can be beneficial to both, depending on the circumstances. Tenants may prefer it as it often results in lower costs than a Triple Net Lease, and landlords may find it easier to manage since they maintain responsibility and control over the property.

How are the expenses divided in a Modified Gross Lease?

The division of expenses is typically outlined in the lease agreement. It can vary widely based on negotiation between the landlord and tenant, but it’s common for the tenant to directly pay utilities and interior maintenance, while the landlord covers exterior maintenance, insurance, and taxes.

Can a Modified Gross Lease rate change within the lease’s duration?

It largely depends on the terms specified in the lease agreement. Some Modified Gross Leases may include a provision allowing the landlord to adjust the rent as specific operating expenses fluctuate.

Can the tenant make changes to the property in a Modified Gross Lease?

Any changes to the property usually need the landlord’s permission. While the tenant is often responsible for the interior maintenance, significant alterations typically require agreement from the landlord.

What type of businesses typically use Modified Gross Leases?

It is particularly common for commercial properties like offices, retail spaces, or industrial areas to be rented out on a Modified Gross Lease.

Related Finance Terms

  • Base Rent
  • Operating Expenses
  • Net Lease
  • Common Area Maintenance (CAM)
  • Leasehold Improvements

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