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Misrepresentation in finance refers to a false statement of a material fact made by one party which affects the other party’s decision in entering into a contract. It can lead to a voidable contract if the party that was misled decides to cancel the agreement. Misrepresentation may be intentional (fraudulent), negligent, or innocent.


The phonetic spelling of the word “Misrepresentation” is: /ˌmɪsˌrɛprɪzɛnˈteɪʃən/

Key Takeaways

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  1. Definition: Misrepresentation refers to a false or misleading statement made by one party which induces another party into an agreement or contract. This false information may lead to serious legal implications.
  2. Types of Misrepresentation: There are three types of misrepresentation: innocent misrepresentation, negligent misrepresentation, and fraudulent misrepresentation. Each type has different legal consequences and remedies.
  3. Remedies: If misrepresentation is proved, the contract can be rendered null and void, and the injured party may be entitled to damages or rescission of the contract.



Misrepresentation in business/finance is important because it refers to a false statement of a material fact made by one party which affects the other party’s decision in agreeing to a contract. If a party enters into a contract based on the misrepresentation of the other party, they may have the right to terminate the contract, or possibly receive compensation for any damages caused by the misrepresented fact. In business, this can lead to serious consequences, including legal liabilities, damage to the organization’s reputation, and loss of consumer trust. Therefore, understanding and avoiding misrepresentation is crucial for maintaining ethical and transparent business practices.


Misrepresentation in business and finance is a false statement of a material fact made by one party which affects the decision-making of another party. Its primary purpose is to deceive or mislead another party, fostering a false perception that leads to agreements based on dishonesty or incomplete information. Whether intentional or inadvertent, misrepresentation can generate transactions or contracts that could be unfavorable or detrimental to one party, particularly the party that relies on the untruthful information in their decision-making process.Nonetheless, the practice of misrepresentation is not used as a legitimate business strategy, but rather it’s an unethical and illegal action punishable by law. Misrepresentation is often associated with fraudulent activities, where it is used to manipulate a situation or individual for personal gain. In order to protect from such cases, businesses and individuals are encouraged to thoroughly vet and verify the information they are provided particularly when such data is critical to a financial transaction or decision. Moreover, legal remedies can be pursued if one becomes a victim of misrepresentation.


1. Enron Corporation: In one of the biggest financial scandals in U.S. history, Enron misstated its profits between 1997 and 2000 by over $1 billion. They manipulated financial accounts to hide debts and inflate profits. Their misrepresentation was a determined attempt to keep the firm’s credit rating high and to maintain investors’ trust, which dramatically collapsed once the truth emerged.2. Volkswagen Emission Scandal: In 2015, Volkswagen misrepresented their diesel cars’ emission levels, claiming they were more environmentally friendly than they were in reality. They installed software that reduced emissions during testing but allowed them to emit up to 40 times more nitrogen oxides during real-world use. This act of misrepresentation led to a massive drop in the company’s market value and billions of dollars in fine.3. WorldCom Accounting Scandal: WorldCom was one of the largest telecommunications companies in the U.S., but in 2002, it admitted to inflating its profits by nearly $4 billion over the previous five quarters. The company achieved this through the misrepresentation of costs as capital expenditure, thereby misleading investors and inflating the value of the company’s assets. Following the revelation, the company filed for bankruptcy.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is misrepresentation in finance and business?

Misrepresentation refers to a false or misleading statement about a material fact by one party, that influences the other party to enter into a contract. It should be noted that the statement could be oral or written.

Are there different types of misrepresentation?

Yes, there are three types of misrepresentation, namely: fraudulent misrepresentation, negligent misrepresentation, and innocent misrepresentation.

What is fraudulent misrepresentation?

Fraudulent misrepresentation is when a party knowingly makes false claims or conceals truth to induce the other party into a contract.

What constitutes negligent misrepresentation?

Negligent misrepresentation occurs when a party, without having reasonable grounds for believing its truth, makes a false statement, causing the other party to engage in a contract.

What is innocent misrepresentation?

Innocent misrepresentation happens when a party makes a false statement honestly believing it to be true, and influences the other party to enter a contract.

What remedies are available for the victims of misrepresentation?

If misrepresentation is found, the contract can be rescinded or cancelled. In certain cases, victims may also sue for damages, especially in the case of fraudulent misrepresentation.

What is the difference between misrepresentation and breach of contract?

Misrepresentation refers to a false statement made before the contract is entered into, which induces the signing of the contract. Breach of contract, however, refers to failure to fulfil the terms or conditions of the already signed contract.

How can one protect against misrepresentation?

Protecting against misrepresentation often involves due diligence such as verifying all information independently, seeking professional advice, and thorough reading and understanding of all terms and conditions of a contract before signing.

Related Finance Terms

  • Fraudulent Misrepresentation
  • Innocent Misrepresentation
  • Negligent Misrepresentation
  • Material Fact
  • Rescission of Contract

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