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Marginal Revenue Product (MRP)


Marginal Revenue Product (MRP) is a financial term that refers to the additional revenue generated by employing one more unit of input, such as a worker or a machine, in the production process. It is calculated by multiplying the marginal product of the input by the marginal revenue of the output. MRP is often used by firms to evaluate the profitability of investments in resources and the optimal allocation of those resources.


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Key Takeaways

  1. Definition of Marginal Revenue Product (MRP): MRP is an economic concept that represents the additional revenue generated by employing an extra unit of input, such as labor or capital. It is a crucial factor in determining the optimal allocation of resources within a firm or industry.
  2. MRP in Decision-making: Firms use MRP as a guide for allocating resources efficiently, especially when they need to determine the marginal productivity of labor and capital. In general, a firm should continue to hire workers or invest in capital as long as the MRP is greater than or equal to the cost of hiring or investing. This ensures that the firm maximizes its profit.
  3. Factors influencing MRP: Several factors can affect the MRP, including the productivity of the input, the price of the output, and the level of competition in the market. Changes in any of these factors can lead to fluctuations in the MRP, potentially prompting firms to adjust their resource allocation strategies to maintain profitability.


Marginal Revenue Product (MRP) is a critical concept in business and finance as it quantifies the additional revenue generated by employing an extra unit of input, such as labor or capital. Understanding MRP is vital for businesses to make informed decisions about resource allocation, productivity optimization, and maximizing profits. By analyzing MRP, firms can determine the most efficient level of input usage and accurately assess the worth of hiring additional workers or investing in more capital equipment. As a result, the concept of Marginal Revenue Product plays a central role in ensuring effective strategizing and sound financial management for businesses in a competitive marketplace.


Marginal Revenue Product (MRP) serves as a critical tool in the realm of business and finance, as it helps organizations determine the optimal utilization of resources. The primary purpose of MRP is to identify the additional revenue generated by employing an extra unit of input, such as labor or capital. This assessment assists firms in making crucial decisions related to hiring additional employees, purchasing new equipment, or allocating resources, thereby contributing to revenue growth and profit maximization. By analyzing MRP, businesses can evaluate the productivity and profitability of their inputs and effectively allocate these inputs to various operational processes. In essence, MRP enables firms to identify the right junctures for expansion or investment while avoiding the pitfalls of overemployment or suboptimal resource allocation. Furthermore, detecting shifts in MRP over time assists decision-makers in analyzing trends within the organization, as well as external market conditions. This allows management to understand and predict the consequences of implementing certain strategies or adapting to changes in the business environment. For instance, when the MRP of an input begins to decline, it could signify diminishing marginal productivity. This information can lead to firms re-evaluating their resource allocation strategies, promoting diversification of input factors, or enabling more informed negotiations when procuring resources or hiring employees. In an increasingly competitive landscape, utilizing data-driven measures such as Marginal Revenue Product contributes significantly to informed decision-making, operational efficiency, and ultimately, long-term financial success.


Example 1: Manufacturing Industry – A car manufacturing company produces automobiles and desires to determine the value of adding an additional worker to their assembly line. Each worker contributes to producing a certain number of cars per month. The company measures the change in total revenue as a result of an extra worker added. For example, if hiring an additional worker results in producing 10 more cars per month, and each car is sold for $20,000, the marginal revenue product for that worker is $200,000 (10 cars x $20,000). Example 2: Agriculture/Farming – A corn farmer wants to increase production to capitalize on favorable corn prices in the market. The farmer must decide the value of employing an extra worker for farm operations. By calculating the marginal revenue product of an additional worker, the farmer can estimate how much extra revenue will be gained. If hiring a new worker generates 1,000 extra bushels of corn that could be sold for $5 per bushel, the MRP for the additional worker would be $5,000 (1,000 bushels x $5). Example 3: Retail / Sales Industry – A retail store is considering expanding its sales team to increase sales revenue. The store can use the MRP concept to determine the value of hiring another salesperson. If the average salesperson generates $40,000 in monthly sales and the store earns a profit margin of 20% on those sales, the MRP of the new salesperson would be $8,000 ($40,000 x 0.20). The store can then compare this $8,000 MRP to the cost of hiring and training a new employee to decide if it’s a financially sound decision.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Marginal Revenue Product (MRP)?
Marginal Revenue Product (MRP) is a financial term that refers to the additional revenue generated by adding one more unit of a resource, such as labor or capital, to the production process. It shows how much extra revenue a firm can earn by increasing the input of a particular resource by one unit, assuming all other factors remain constant.
How is Marginal Revenue Product calculated?
MRP is calculated by multiplying the marginal product (MP) of the resource with the marginal revenue (MR) generated by the additional unit of output. The formula for MRP is: MRP = MP x MR
What is the relation between MRP and profit maximization?
Firms aiming to maximize profit should allocate resources in such a way that the MRP of each resource matches its cost. When the MRP of an additional resource unit exceeds its cost, the firm can increase profit by employing more of that resource. On the other hand, if the MRP is less than the cost of the resource, the firm should cut back on that resource to optimize profits.
How does MRP help in making decisions related to resource allocation?
By evaluating the MRP, firms can determine the most efficient way to allocate their resources. Firms should allocate resources to the production of goods and services in which their MRP is the highest, considering the costs of those resources.
Is Marginal Revenue Product applicable only to labor resources?
No, MRP is not limited to labor input; it can be applied to other factors of production, such as capital or raw materials. The concept helps firms determine the optimal allocation of various resources to maximize profit.
What factors can influence MRP?
Factors that can affect MRP include changes in market demand, production technology advancements, and the availability of complementary resources. These factors can lead to changes in both the marginal product and the marginal revenue, ultimately affecting the MRP.

Related Finance Terms

  • Marginal Product of Labor (MPL)
  • Marginal Revenue (MR)
  • Value of Marginal Product (VMP)
  • Factor Markets
  • Profit Maximization

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