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Last Twelve Months (LTM)


Last Twelve Months (LTM) is a financial term used to evaluate a company’s performance over the past twelve months. It provides an up-to-date snapshot of a company’s financial health, as opposed to relying solely on annual reports. By calculating key financial metrics like revenue and earnings over the LTM period, investors and analysts gain insights into a company’s recent performance trends.


Last Twelve Months (LTM) can be phonetically transcribed as:/ˈlæst ˈtwɛlv ˈmʌnθs/ (LTM)

Key Takeaways

  1. Last Twelve Months (LTM) refers to a financial performance measure that evaluates a company’s performance over the past 12 months.
  2. LTM data is commonly used by analysts and investors to assess a company’s recent performance trends and make financial projections for the future.
  3. Using LTM can help provide a more accurate and up-to-date picture of a company’s financial health as it comprises the most recent financial data and excludes older, less relevant periods.


The Last Twelve Months (LTM) is an essential business and finance term that refers to a company’s performance over the past twelve-month period. It is vital because it offers a more comprehensive and current snapshot of a firm’s financial health, operational efficiency, and overall performance compared to data from specific quarters or annual reports. The LTM provides investors, analysts, and other stakeholders with valuable insights to make informed decisions, detect financial trends, and assess the company’s stability. By reflecting the most recent and relevant information, LTM data mitigates the effects of seasonality and other short-term fluctuations, presenting a more accurate depiction of a company’s ongoing performance.


The Last Twelve Months (LTM) is a widely used financial metric in the world of finance and business, serving as an essential tool for assessing a company’s financial performance and business trends. The primary purpose of the LTM is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date snapshot of an organization’s financial position by considering the most recent 12-month period. By casting light on the most recent financial data, LTM ensures that the short-term fluctuations and seasonal variations impacting businesses are smoothed out, enabling investors, analysts, and other stakeholders to achieve a clearer understanding of a company’s stability, growth, and overall performance. Utilizing LTM as a standard evaluation criterion enables stakeholders to make informed decisions and draw accurate comparisons between companies operating within the same industry or sector. Financial ratios and metrics such as Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA), revenue growth, and net income are frequently evaluated on an LTM basis, offering indispensable insights into a company’s profitability and overall financial health. Furthermore, LTM is commonly employed in valuation, forecasting, and merger and acquisition activities, ultimately allowing companies to strategize effectively and allocate resources optimally to ensure long-term success and growth.


Example 1: Company Earnings Assessment – A group of investors is considering purchasing shares in Company ABC. To make an informed decision, they examine ABC’s financial performance over the Last Twelve Months (LTM). They analyze various financial metrics like revenue, net income, and EBITDA, among others, to gauge the company’s financial health and stability. This LTM analysis will also help them to identify trends and make relevant comparisons with competitors. Example 2: Merger & Acquisition Valuation – Company XYZ is looking to acquire Company DEF, and they need to value the target company accurately. To do this, they turn to the LTM figures of Company DEF. By analyzing LTM financials such as revenue, EBITDA, and cash flow, they can assess the target company’s recent performance and use these metrics to project its future cash flows. In turn, this information is helpful in determining a fair purchase price for the target company based on its Last Twelve Months’ performance. Example 3: Bank Loan Eligibility – A small business owner is applying for a loan to expand their business. The bank, in its due diligence process, analyzes the business’s financial performance over the Last Twelve Months (LTM). By examining LTM metrics such as debt-to-equity ratio and leverage, the bank can assess the business’s creditworthiness and decide whether to approve the loan. The LTM analysis helps the bank understand if the business presents a low risk and is likely to repay the loan on time.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What does Last Twelve Months (LTM) mean in the context of finance and business?
Last Twelve Months (LTM) refers to the most recent 12-month financial period used for analyzing a company’s financial performance and reporting. It is often used to assess company trends and to make comparisons between different businesses within the same industry.
Why is LTM important?
LTM provides a more updated and comprehensive view of a company’s financial performance, as it captures the most recent 12 months’ data. It is crucial for understanding trends in revenue, earnings, and other financial metrics that may not be accurately reflected in annual or quarterly reports. This helps investors, analysts, and stakeholders make better-informed decisions.
How is LTM calculated?
To calculate LTM, you typically analyze the past four quarters of financial data. For example, if a company releases its Q financial report, you would combine the data from Q of the previous year to Q of the current year to get the LTM metrics.
Can LTM replace annual or quarterly financial reports?
No, LTM is not a replacement for annual or quarterly financial reports. Instead, it complements these reports by providing additional insight into the company’s performance over a more recent period. It is a valuable tool for investors and analysts but not a substitute for standard financial reports.
Is LTM useful when comparing the performance of different companies?
Yes, LTM is a valuable tool when comparing the performance of businesses within the same industry, as it standardizes the timeframe while taking into account the most recent 12 months of financial data. This ensures a more accurate comparison since seasonal fluctuations and other short-term trends are mitigated.
Can LTM be used for forecasting purposes?
Though LTM is best suited for analyzing past performance, it may be useful in forecasting future trends. By evaluating a company’s LTM data, analysts may identify patterns or trends that could continue into the future. However, it is essential to consider other factors, such as market conditions, competition, and any changes in company strategy, when making forecasts.

Related Finance Terms

  • Trailing Twelve Months (TTM)
  • Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)
  • Free Cash Flow (FCF)
  • Revenue Growth
  • Net Income

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