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K-Percent Rule


The K-Percent Rule is a monetary policy theory stating that a country’s central bank should increase the money supply at a fixed annual percentage to ensure stable economic growth. This rule aims to make the money supply grow consistently with the real GDP, targeting a low and stable inflation rate. The percentage “K” represents the desired increase in money supply and should ideally be in line with long-term potential GDP growth and stable inflation rates.


The phonetics for the keyword “K-Percent Rule” are as follows:K – /keɪ/Percent – /pərˈsɛnt/Rule – /ruːl/Put together:K-Percent Rule – /keɪ pərˈsɛnt ruːl/

Key Takeaways

  1. The K-Percent Rule is a monetary policy rule that proposes a constant and fixed rate of money supply growth to achieve long-term economic stability.
  2. It is based on the belief that moderate and steady money supply growth will lead to stable inflation rates, predictable economic growth, and reduced economic fluctuations.
  3. While the K-Percent Rule has its advantages, such as predictability and simplicity, it also has its drawbacks, including its inability to respond to economic shocks or changes in demand for money efficiently.


The K-Percent Rule is important in the world of business and finance as it offers a guideline for central banks to manage the money supply and maintain price stability effectively. By increasing money supply at a constant rate (K) that is in line with the economy’s potential growth, this rule helps prevent excess liquidity, which can lead to inflation, or a shortage of money, which can slow down economic growth. By adhering to the K-Percent Rule, policymakers can sustain long-term financial stability and foster a healthy economic environment, allowing businesses and individuals to make informed financial decisions with greater predictability.


The K-Percent Rule is a monetary policy guideline which central banks can employ to ensure a steady economic growth path and maintain price stability in the market. This rule emphasizes the necessity of increasing the money supply by a constant percentage each year, theoretically allowing for a stable relationship between the money supply, real GDP, and the price level. By sustaining this constant growth rate, central banks aim to eliminate unpredictable fluctuations in the business cycle and stimulate sustainable economic opportunity.

The primary purpose of implementing the K-Percent Rule is to provide a dependable and controlled expansion of the money supply that ultimately leads to reduced inflation and fosters a stable economic environment. As it encourages long-term planning and investment, businesses and consumers are more likely to make better-informed financial decisions with the predictability provided by this policy. While the rule isn’t universally favored or applicable in all economic scenarios, central banks can often benefit from considering the K-Percent Rule as a part of their overall monetary policy toolkit, ensuring a level of stability and predictability in the ever-evolving economic landscape.


The K-Percent Rule is a monetary policy concept that suggests that central banks should increase the money supply by a fixed percentage, known as K, every year, so as to maintain price stability and facilitate economic growth. Here are three real-world examples that involve the application or consideration of the K-Percent Rule:

1. Milton Friedman’s Advocacy for the K-Percent Rule: Economist Milton Friedman (1912-2006) was a prominent advocate of the K-Percent Rule. In the 1960s and 1970s, Friedman criticized discretionary monetary policy due to its inconsistent nature and influence on inflation. He proposed that central banks should follow a fixed, predictable rule for increasing the money supply by a percentage (K) in order to stabilize inflation and ensure economic stability. Although no central bank has used the rule strictly as proposed by Friedman, his ideas have influenced how central banks, like the US Federal Reserve, approach monetary policy.

2. Influence on Modern Monetary Targets: While not following the K-Percent Rule strictly, central banks have adopted some elements of this approach. For example, during the late 1970s and 1980s, several central banks, including the US Federal Reserve and the Bank of England, started to focus more on monetary aggregates and targeted money supply growth rates. This focus on money supply growth rates as a primary objective of monetary policy is a reflection of the K-Percent Rule’s influence.

3. European Central Bank (ECB) Monetary Policy: Though the ECB’s monetary policy does not rely on the K-Percent Rule directly, it still remains committed to ensuring price stability. The ECB targets an inflation rate of below, but close to, 2% over the medium term, which bears similarities with the K-Percent Rule, as it revolves around a specific target. Moreover, it is committed to maintaining a predictable policy for market participants, which also bears some resemblance to the principles of the K-Percent Rule.

Though the K-Percent Rule has not been strictly adopted in practice, it has influenced modern central bank policies and contributed to the development of new frameworks in monetary policies.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the K-Percent Rule?

The K-Percent Rule is a monetary policy guideline stating that a central bank should adjust the growth rate of the money supply according to a fixed percentage rate (K) to maintain stable prices and economic growth. Essentially, it proposes to maintain a constant money supply growth rate to avoid economic fluctuations.

How is the K-Percent Rule calculated?

The K-Percent Rule is calculated by multiplying the real GDP growth rate by a specific percentage (K) determined by the monetary authority or central bank. The desired increase in the supply of money would be equal to the K-percent rate multiplied by the current money supply.

Who is responsible for implementing the K-Percent Rule?

Central banks or monetary authorities are responsible for implementing the K-Percent Rule. They control the money supply through various tools, such as interest rate adjustments, open market operations, and reserve requirements.

What is the purpose of the K-Percent Rule?

The main purpose of the K-Percent Rule is to ensure a stable and predictable growth in the money supply. This, in turn, promotes price stability, prevents high inflation, and supports sustainable economic growth. By maintaining a predictable monetary policy, it helps businesses and individuals make informed financial decisions.

Where does the concept of the K-Percent Rule come from?

The K-Percent Rule was originally proposed by economist Milton Friedman as a way of simplifying monetary policy and preventing excessive money supply fluctuations. It has since been used as a guideline for central banks in setting their monetary policy.

What are the advantages of the K-Percent Rule?

Advantages of the K-Percent Rule include:1. Simplicity: It simplifies monetary policy by providing a straightforward rule to follow.2. Inflation control: It helps in controlling inflation by ensuring a stable money supply growth rate.3. Economic stability: It promotes stability by removing uncertainty and unexpected changes in monetary policy.4. Transparency: It increases transparency in monetary policy, making it easier for businesses and individuals to make informed decisions.

What are the disadvantages of the K-Percent Rule?

Disadvantages of the K-Percent Rule include:1. Inflexibility: It lacks flexibility to adjust to unexpected economic changes, such as recessions or financial crises.2. Limited effectiveness: The rule may not be effective in all economic situations as different economic circumstances may require different monetary policy responses.3. Difficulty in measuring money supply: Accurately measuring the money supply can be challenging, which can lead to inaccuracies in implementing the rule.

Has the K-Percent Rule been adopted by any central banks?

No central bank has strictly adhered to the K-Percent Rule, as it is considered too rigid to accommodate for changes in economic conditions. However, it has influenced the thinking of many central banks in formulating their monetary policies, with a focus on maintaining stable prices and promoting sustainable economic growth.

Related Finance Terms

  • Monetary policy
  • Nominal GDP targeting
  • Inflation rate
  • Central bank
  • Money supply growth

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