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Internal Audit


An internal audit is a process conducted by a company’s own personnel to evaluate, monitor, and improve the effectiveness of its internal control systems, risk management, and governance processes. It’s an independent, objective assurance activity designed to add value and enhance the organization’s operations. The main goal of an internal audit is to improve a company’s operations and protect against fraud and other misuses of resources.


The phonetics of the keyword “Internal Audit” are:Internal: /ɪnˈtɜːr.nəl/Audit: /ˈɔː.dɪt/

Key Takeaways

  1. Risk Management: Internal Audit plays a crucial role in managing risk within an organization. By assessing and evaluating an organization’s processes and controls, they help identify potential risks and provide recommendations on how to manage and mitigate them.
  2. Compliance: Another crucial aspect of Internal Audit is ensuring compliance with laws, regulations, and internal policies. They assist in preventing fraud and non-compliance issues, which could lead to legal and financial repercussions if left unchecked.
  3. Improvement of Operations: Through their analysis, Internal Auditors also help improve operational efficiency. They identify flaws in processes and propose improvements, which ultimately lead to improved productivity and effectiveness of operations.


Internal Audit is a critical function in business finance as it helps in maintaining and improving efficiency and effectiveness of an organization’s operations. It provides an unbiased, objective assessment of how well the company’s internal processes and controls are working, helping the organization mitigate risks, ensure compliance with laws, regulations and its policies. An effective internal audit system can identify loopholes and deficiencies in an organization’s operating system before they become a major problem, providing management with valuable recommendations for improvement. It also protects company’s assets and reduces the likelihood of fraud and financial mismanagement. Hence, internal audit significantly contributes towards strategic decision making and organizational success.


The primary purpose of an Internal Audit is to provide an independent, objective assurance and consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization’s operations. It helps an organization achieve its objectives by applying a systematic methodology to evaluate and enhance the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes. This function guides an organization toward its successful pathway by identifying its weaknesses, areas of fraud, and mitigating risks. Internal audit serves as a tool to instill a culture of transparency and accountability within an organization.Internal Audit is used to scrutinize the day-to-day activities of an organization and assist in risk management. It supports an organization in identifying potential risks ahead of time and recommends relevant strategies to mitigate those risks, hence ensuring the smooth running of an organization. This systematic approach provides assurance on the effectiveness of the organization’s internal controls, risk management, governance, and the process by which objectives and goals are met. In essence, internal audits bolster managerial control, accuracy of financial data, and adherence to laws and regulations, aiding an organisation in decision making and strategic planning.


1. J.P. Morgan Chase & Co: J.P. Morgan is one of the largest banking establishments in the world, and it performs internal audits regularly across its various operations. The internal audit team assesses risk management strategies, control systems, and governance processes. Their findings help ensure compliance with financial regulations, prevent fraud and illegal activities, and improve overall business operations.2. Ernst & Young (EY): As one of the biggest accounting firms globally, Ernst & Young conducts internal audits for its clients and its own organization. EY helps businesses identify risks to their growth, operational efficiency, and compliance with the law. Through their internal audits, they provide independent assurance that a company’s risk management, governance, and control processes are operating effectively.3. Google: Besides tech-driven organizations, Google, conducts internal audits to assess its various controls and performance processes in the firm, including IT security measures, data management, HR functions, and financial processing systems. This internal check is crucial to maintain data integrity, ensure excellent service delivery and maintain the firm’s competitiveness in the industry.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is an Internal Audit?

An Internal Audit is a process conducted by an organization’s internal auditors to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control, and governance processes.

Why is an Internal Audit important?

Internal Audit is crucial in ensuring that an organization is functioning within the framework of ethical conduct, regulatory adherence, and effective management. It helps to identify potential threats and provides the organization with advice on improving its operations.

Who conducts an Internal Audit?

Internal Audit is generally conducted by a team of auditors who are employees of the organization. They operate independently from other departments to maintain objectivity in their reviews.

When should an organization conduct an Internal Audit?

This varies from one organization to another due to differences in operational activities, business risks, and the organizational control environment. However, it is best practice for an organization to conduct regular audits at least annually.

Is there a standard process for conducting an Internal Audit?

Yes, Internal Auditing generally follows a standard process that includes planning, executing, communicating results, and follow-up reviews.

How is an Internal Audit different from an External Audit?

An Internal Audit is conducted by the organization’s auditors, and its key purpose is to improve the organization’s operations. An External Audit, on the other hand, is conducted by external independent auditors, and its primary purpose is to attest to the validity and reliability of the organization’s financial records.

What qualifications are needed to be an Internal Auditor?

Internal Auditors usually hold a degree in Finance, Business, or a related field. Professional certifications such as Certified Internal Auditor (CIA), Certified Public Accountant (CPA), or Certified Information Systems Auditor (CISA) are also highly regarded in the field.

Can the findings of an Internal Audit impact an organization’s reputation?

Yes, the findings from an Internal Audit can impact an organization’s reputation, especially if any discrepancies or inefficiencies are revealed. However, generally, organizations use the audit findings to improve their systems and reduce risks. Thus, these audits often boost stakeholders’ confidence in the organization.

Related Finance Terms

  • Risk Assessment
  • Compliance Testing
  • Operational Audit
  • Internal Control System
  • Audit Report

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