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Hammer Clause


The Hammer Clause, also known as the “consent-to-settle provision,” is a provision in an insurance policy that allows the insurer to settle a claim on behalf of the insured. It protects the insurer from paying excessive legal fees and claim costs by giving them the right to settle a claim without the insured’s consent. However, if the insured disagrees with the settlement, they are responsible for paying any additional costs incurred above the settled amount.


The phonetic pronunciation of “Hammer Clause” would be:ˈha-mər klɔzor using an alternative phonetic notation:/ˈhæmər klɔːz/

Key Takeaways

  1. A Hammer Clause, also known as a settlement cap provision, is a clause in an insurance policy that allows the insurer to set the maximum amount that they will pay for a claim, should a consensus be reached about the settlement of the claim.
  2. It provides the insurer with a level of control over claim payouts, but also places some responsibility on the insured party to agree to settlements within that limit. If the insured party doesn’t accept the settlement, the insurer may only pay the amount outlined in the hammer clause and the insured will be responsible for the rest.
  3. While hammer clauses can protect insurance companies from exorbitant claim payouts, they may also put an insured party at an increased financial risk if a settlement cannot be reached. As a result, it is essential for policyholders to understand the implications of a hammer clause in their insurance policy.


The Hammer Clause, also known as a Settlement Cap provision, is crucial in business and finance, particularly in the context of liability insurance policies. This clause plays a vital role in safeguarding the interests of both the insured and the insurer during the process of settling a legal claim. It enables the insurer to control potential financial losses by setting a cap on settlement amounts and encourages policyholders to accept reasonable settlement offers. In essence, it assists in avoiding long-drawn legal battles and mitigates financial risks faced by both parties. Understanding and negotiating the terms of the Hammer Clause can have significant implications on claim outcomes, ensuring a delicate balance between legal defense rights and fiscal prudence.


The Hammer Clause, commonly found in liability insurance policies, serves to protect the insurer’s interests while empowering the insured party when faced with a potential claim settlement process. The purpose of this clause is to encourage parties to accept a proposed settlement and avoid dragging the case to court, where legal fees and expenses could skyrocket. The rationale behind the Hammer Clause is managing financial risk and retaining control over the settlement process to a certain degree. This provision allows the insurer to put pressure on the insured to accept a settlement if deemed reasonable, thus helping the involved parties to resolve claims more efficiently and economically.

Given that the Hammer Clause grants the insurer some control over the settlement, it is employed to facilitate a cost-effective resolution of disputes. The insured party, however, is not left without some degree of choice; they retain the option to either accept or reject the settlement proposed by the insurer. In case the insured party refuses the settlement and opts for litigation instead, the Hammer Clause limits the insurer’s financial obligation – often capped at the amount they initially proposed. This way, the clause protects the insurer from severe financial loss in case the litigation results in a higher payout than the suggested settlement. On the other hand, it can be seen as a compromise between the insurer and insured, reminding the latter to carefully consider the most pragmatic outcome for their situation.


A Hammer Clause, also known as a settlement cap provision or blackmail settlement clause, is a clause in a liability insurance policy that limits the insurer’s financial responsibility for legal expenses related to claims. Essentially, if the insured party does not accept the settlement offer recommended by the insurer, the insured party will be responsible for any expenses exceeding the settlement amount. Here are three real-world examples to illustrate the Hammer Clause:

1. A medical professional is sued for malpractice and has a professional liability insurance policy with a Hammer Clause. The insurer conducts its investigation and negotiations and recommends a settlement amount of $100,000. However, the medical professional believes they can win the case, and doesn’t want to accept the settlement offer. Eventually, they lose the case and are ordered to pay $150,000 to the claimant. Due to the Hammer Clause, the insurance company is only obligated to cover the initial $100,000 settlement amount, so the professional must cover the remaining $50,000.

2. A technology company faces a lawsuit over alleged intellectual property infringement. The company’s liability insurance includes a Hammer Clause. In this scenario, let’s say the insurer recommends a settlement of $250,000, but the tech company does not agree and wants to fight the case. If the technology company loses and the final award is $300,000, the insurer would only pay the $250,000, and the tech company would be responsible for paying the remaining $50,000.

3. A construction company is sued for property damage resulting from negligence at their worksite. Their liability insurance policy contains a Hammer Clause. The insurance company’s proposed settlement is set at $75,000, but the construction company decides to defend themselves in court. The case eventually results in the construction company being ordered to pay $100,000. Due to the Hammer Clause in the company’s policy, the insurer would only be responsible for covering the initial $75,000, and the construction company would have to pay the extra $25,000.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the Hammer Clause?

A Hammer Clause, also known as a Consent to Settle Clause or a Settlement Cap Provision, is a provision in a liability insurance policy that allows the insurer to settle a claim by making an offer without the insured’s consent. If the insured does not agree to the settlement offer, the insurer’s liability is limited to the amount of the offer, the defense costs incurred up to that point, and a predetermined percentage of the remaining defense costs.

When does the Hammer Clause come into play?

The Hammer Clause comes into play when there is a disagreement between the insurance company and the insured on whether to settle a claim or proceed with litigation. If the insurer believes settling is the best course of action, while the insured wants to fight the claim, the Hammer Clause can be invoked to attempt to find a resolution.

What is the purpose of a Hammer Clause?

The purpose of a Hammer Clause is to protect the insurance company’s financial interests by ensuring that claims are settled promptly and cost-effectively. It discourages the insured from rejecting reasonable settlement offers and pursuing litigation that may result in higher expenses for the insurer.

How does a Hammer Clause impact the insured?

If a Hammer Clause is invoked, the insured faces a decision: accept the insurer’s proposed settlement or reject it and bear the risk of additional costs. If the insured rejects the offer and proceeds with litigation, they could be responsible for a portion of the defense costs and any judgment or settlement amount that exceeds the offered settlement.

Can the insured negotiate the terms of a Hammer Clause?

Yes, the insured may negotiate the terms of a Hammer Clause, such as the percentage of defense costs or settlement amounts they would be responsible for if they reject a settlement offer. However, this may result in higher premiums since the insurer is taking on more risk by providing greater flexibility in settlement negotiations.

Is the Hammer Clause common in liability insurance policies?

Yes, Hammer Clauses are relatively common in liability insurance policies, particularly in professional liability insurance. They help manage potential risks and costs associated with claims and litigation, benefiting both the insurer and the insured.

Related Finance Terms

  • Insurance policy provision
  • Settlement negotiation
  • Consent to settle
  • Loss sharing
  • Claim resolution

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