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Gross National Product (GNP)


Gross National Product (GNP) is a measure of a country’s economic performance. It represents the total value of all final goods and services produced by the residents of a country within a specific period, regardless of the location of production. It includes domestic production and the overseas production by residents, but excludes domestic production by non-residents.


Gross National Product (GNP) is pronounced as: /groʊs ˈnæʃənəl ˈprɒdʌkt/

Key Takeaways

  1. Gross National Product (GNP) Definition: GNP measures the total economic output of a country's residents, regardless of the location of the actual production. It combines the value of all finished goods and services produced by a country's residents, both domestically and internationally, within a set period of time.
  2. GNP vs GDP: While Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the value of all goods and services within a country's borders, GNP includes all production by a country's residents, regardless of where that production takes place. Therefore, GNP is a more accurate reflection of a nation's income than GDP, particularly for countries with a significant number of citizens living abroad.
  3. Uses of GNP: GNP is an important economic indicator, used to show a country's economic performance. Governments, businesses, and economists use GNP for planning and analysis in relation to growth, investments, and economic health. A rising GNP indicates a prospering economy while a declining GNP signals an economic downturn.


Gross National Product (GNP) is an important economic measure because it represents the overall economic output of a nation’s residents, both domestically and abroad. It provides a comprehensive snapshot of a nation’s economic activity, indicating how successful the country is in generating wealth for its citizens. Unlike Gross Domestic Product (GDP), GNP also factors in the income earned by citizens who are abroad and domestic income generated by foreign residents. Therefore, GNP can present a clearer and more accurate measure of a nation’s overall economic health. The changes in GNP can be used to analyze economic performance over time, facilitating policy-making and business decisions. It is also often used for international comparisons.


Gross National Product, commonly shortened to GNP, is a macroeconomic measurement used to gauge the overall economic health and vitality of a country’s economy. The purpose of GNP lies in its ability to provide a comprehensive snapshot of the economic output of a country, inclusive of the goods and services produced by its residents, both within the country’s borders and abroad. It is an important tool for economists, policymakers, and governments to ascertain the economic productivity and growth of a nation, regardless of where around the globe the businesses and individuals contributing to this production are located.The calculation and use of GNP are primarily leveraged to compare the economic performance of different nations, or consider the economic progress of a single nation over time. By providing a quantifiable measure of total production, GNP enables meaningful comparisons and evaluations of a nation’s growth and output. This information, in turn, aids governments in policy formulation surrounding areas such as taxation and economic strategy, and helps investors and business leaders make informed decisions. Therefore, GNP is not just a numerical statistic, but a crucial indicator of a nation’s economic well-being and a tool for strategic economic planning and decision making.


1. United States Economic Output: The Bureau of Economic Analysis in the United States reported a GNP of approximately $21.4 trillion for the year 2019. This value encapsulates the market value of all goods and services produced by residents of the U.S., regardless of their location, within the specified time period.2. Economic Comparison between Countries: For instance, according to the World Bank, Luxembourg boasted one of the world’s highest GNP per capita at around $69,000 in 2020, providing an excellent indication of the size and robustness of the nation’s economy in comparison to larger countries such as China or India whose total GNP is high, but per capita GNP is significantly lower due to larger population.3. Filipino Overseas Workers: The Philippines’ GNP is significantly impacted by the income generated by overseas Filipino workers. Due to a large amount of workers sending part of their income back home, the country’s GNP is often higher than its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This situation vividly demonstrates how GNP takes into account the economic contributions of a country’s residents, regardless of where they are situated globally.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Gross National Product (GNP)?

Gross National Product (GNP) is the total market value of all final goods and services produced by the residents of a country in a specified period of time. It includes the domestic production of goods and services, as well as the goods and services produced abroad by the country’s residents.

How is GNP different from GDP?

While GNP measures the economic output generated by a country’s nationals regardless of their location, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) measures the total value of all goods and services produced within a country’s borders in a specific time period, regardless of who produced it.

How is GNP used in finance and economics?

GNP is an economic statistic that is used to understand the state of a country’s economy. It shows how productive a country’s residents are, and how it compares with other nations. It helps economists and investors to analyze the performance and make predictions about future performance.

What are the components of GNP?

The main components of GNP are consumption, government spending, investments made by industry, and net exports (which is the country’s total exports minus its total imports). It also includes the income earned by a country’s residents from overseas investments, minus the income earned within the domestic economy by overseas residents.

Why is GNP important?

GNP is a key indicator of a nation’s economic health. It provides an overview of the economic productivity of the residents of a country, both within their home country and abroad. This helps to guide policy makers, investors, and businesses in making informed decisions.

How is GNP measured?

GNP is measured by calculating the sum of personal consumption expenditures, gross private domestic investment, government consumption and gross investment, goods and services exports, goods and services imports, income receipts from the rest of the world, and income payments to the rest of the world.

How often is GNP reported?

GNP is typically reported on a quarterly and annual basis. These reports are widely studied and analyzed by economists, investors, and policy makers.

Can GNP go down? What does it imply?

Yes, GNP can decrease. A declining GNP indicates a contraction in a country’s economy and could be an indicator of a recession. It suggests that the residents of the country are producing less and could be due to various factors such as unemployment, reduction in consumer spending or drop in investment.

What is Real GNP?

Real GNP takes into account the price changes (inflation or deflation), allowing a more precise comparison by removing the effects of price inflation to reflect real volume of output. This provides a more accurate picture of a country’s economic situation over time.

: Is higher GNP always beneficial?

While a higher GNP often implies an increase in production and a stronger economy, it doesn’t necessarily mean improved living standards – for instance, if the growth is accompanied by environmental damage, increased inequality or depletion of resources. Plus, GNP doesn’t capture the ‘informal economy’ and non-market activities, or reflect societal well-being or progress.

Related Finance Terms

  • Nominal GNP: The sum total of all goods and services produced by the citizens of an economy, measured at their current market prices, over a specific time period.
  • Real GNP: The total output produced by citizens of an economy, adjusted for inflation or deflation, to reflect changes in purchasing power.
  • GNP per Capita: This is the GNP of a country divided by its population. It’s a good measure to compare the economic performance of different countries.
  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP): This is a similar concept to GNP, though GDP measures the value of products and services produced within a country’s borders, regardless of the nationality of the producers.
  • Net National Product (NNP): This subtracts the depreciation of an economy’s capital goods from the GNP to provide a more accurate measure of actual productivity.

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