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Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP)


Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) is a method used by banks to measure how funds are contributing to their profitability. It involves allocating interest rates to funding sources (like deposits or loans) in order to determine financial performance. Essentially, FTP aids in determining the value of funds moving between various divisions in a banking institution.


Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) in phonetics is:Funds: /fʌndz/Transfer: /trænsˈfɝː/Pricing: /ˈpraɪsɪŋ/FTP: /ˌɛf tiː ˈpiː/

Key Takeaways

<ol><li>Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) is a system that evaluates and attributes performance within a financial institution by assessing the amount of revenue departments generate for the bank, and the cost of the funds they use. This aids in better performance measurement, profitability analysis, and strategic decision-making.</li><li>FTP measures the contribution of different business units, allowing banks to assess and manage risk appropriately. It’s essential in balancing the risk-reward trade-off within banks, as it aids in recognizing the costs and benefits associated with various sources and uses of funds.</li><li>Finally, FTP plays a significant role in effective management of liquidity risk, interest rate risk, and business profitability. It is considered a best practice in risk management and financial control, used by most established banks worldwide.</li></ol>


Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) is a vital component in banking and finance because it allows for the quantification and analysis of how funding contributes to the overall profitability of the institution. It provides a framework for attributing net interest margin, a key profitability indicator for banks, to each business unit and individual transaction. This helps to map the profitability of different departments and operations within a bank, enabling better business decisions, efficient allocation of resources, and effective risk management. By establishing a clear and accurate price for the internal use of funds, FTP encourages prudent and capital effective behavior and therefore, plays a central role in strategic decision-making and financial stewardship in banking institutions.


Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) is a widely applicable internal management system employed by financial firms to quantify and analyse their lending and deposit operations. The purpose of FTP is to provide a mechanism for allocating the profit between the various business units that approve and administer loans and deposits. The main aim for a bank using FTP is to assess the profitability of different business sections and products, thus allowing the decision-making process to be based on solid numbers. By doing so, it simplifies the evaluation of the credit, interest rate and liquidity risks associated, assisting banks to determine the real value of their operations.FTP goes about this by simulating the cost and income for each business unit in an organization, such as a bank, through a hypothetical break-up of the funding sources, thereby promoting a more transparent allocation of the firm’s profits and losses. Utilizing FTP means, the treasury department in a bank, for example, can determine the cost or return for the funds needed or raised from various sectors and redistribute income accordingly. Therefore, it is a critical tool for risk management, funds allocation, performance measurement and enhancing banks’ competitive advantage in the market. Ultimately, it assists businesses, particularly in the finance sector, in achieving strategic goals and ensuring financial stability by translating the complexities of various financial activities into understandable and tangible figures.


1. Commercial Banking Sector: Most commercial banks today use Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) extensively as a method to determine how much each department contributes to the banks’ total profits, which is done by attribiting a cost to the funds used by each department. For example, if a bank’s lending department issues a loan, the bank then uses FTP to assess the cost of funds for the loan, allowing the bank to attribute an internal cost to the loan. 2. Multinational Corporations: These type of companies often use FTP when they move money between different divisions in different countries. For instance, if the European division of a multinational company lends money to the U.S. division, FTP might be used to determine the interest rate for the loan. 3. Financial Services Companies: Many investment funds or asset management firms use FTP when allocating costs between different funds or portfolios. For example, if an asset management firm uses certain resources that benefit multiple portfolios, the cost can be assessed using FTP to ensure each portfolio pays its fair share. This helps the firm understand the true profitability of each portfolio.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP)?

Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP) is a method used by banks to measure how each source of funding (deposits and loans) contributes to the bank’s profitability. It’s a process that enables commercial banks to evaluate profitability on a risk-adjusted basis by considering both the interest rate risk and liquidity risk.

Why do banks use Funds Transfer Pricing (FTP)?

Banks use FTP to determine the contribution of each department, business unit, or product line to the overall profitability of the bank. By intricately tracking internal transactions, banks can more accurately identify their most and least profitable sectors.

How does FTP support decision-making within a bank?

FTP supports decision-making by providing financial transparency, thereby helping bank managers to see how different departments, products, or customers impact the bank’s profitability. It is a critical tool to support strategic planning, risk management, and performance evaluation.

How is FTP calculated?

FTP rate is typically calculated by using market rates and adjusting these rates for the liquidity premium and the credit risk premium associated with the specific transaction. The exact calculation method may vary between different institutions and depending on the risk profile of the transactions.

When did FTP gain prominence in banking?

FTP became more prominent during the 1980s as deregulation of the banking industry allowed more flexible pricing of bank services. This pushed banks to seek a better understanding of the drivers of their profitability.

Is FTP only applicable to banking institutions?

While most commonly associated with banking institutions, FTP principles can be applied to any company with multiple, interdependent units. These organizations can use FTP-like systems to allocate costs and revenues to gain better insight into profitability.

What are some challenges of implementing FTP?

Challenges may include obtaining quality data, maintaining consistency in methodology, and conveying the importance of FTP to all bank departments. Misunderstanding or misuse of FTP can lead to inaccurate pricing or misleading profitability figures.

What impact does FTP have on a bank’s customers?

While mostly used internally, FTP can indirectly affect bank customers. By identifying the most profitable services, banks can focus on promoting these areas, which may alter the products or services that are presented to customers. It could also lead to changes in rates or fees for specific services.

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