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Funds From Operations (FFO)


Funds From Operations (FFO) is a financial performance measure primarily used in the analysis of real estate investment trusts (REITs). It’s the net income of a REIT, adding back depreciation and amortization, and subtracting any gains on the sale of property. In essence, FFO provides a clearer picture of the operating performance of a REIT than net income alone.


The phonetics of the keyword “Funds From Operations (FFO)” would be: “Funds” – /fʌndz/”From” – /frɒm/”Operations” – /ˌɒpəˈreɪʃənz/”FFO” – /ef, ef, oʊ/

Key Takeaways

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  1. Definition: Funds from Operations (FFO) is a financial metric used predominantly in the analysis of real estate investment trusts (REITs). It depicts the cash generation capability of a property company and is important for comparison and analysis.
  2. Calculation: FFO is calculated by adding depreciation and amortization to earnings, and then subtracting any gains on sales. It’s considered a more accurate measure of a real estate company’s operating performance than net income because it excludes the profit/loss on the sale of property and non-cash depreciation.
  3. Application: Investors, analysts, and portfolio managers use FFO to derive various other financial metrics, such as Price to FFO, Dividend Payout Ratio, and Total Returns. By examining the trends in FFO, stakeholders can better assess the financial health and performance of a real estate company or REIT.

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Funds From Operations (FFO) is a crucial term in business/finance, particularly for those involved in the real estate industry or interested in REITs (Real Estate Investment Trusts). It essentially represents the measure of cash generated through the operation of the company. This metric is vital because it gives investors a better understanding of the financial performance and profitability of a company by excluding the potential distortion effects of depreciation. Unlike net income, FFO considers regular business expenses but excludes capital expenditures, providing a clearer picture of a company’s operating performance and its ability to produce cash. The ability to generate substantial FFO consistently can indicate a robust financial position, increasing the firm’s attractiveness to investors. Therefore, Funds From Operations is a crucial parameter considered during investment decision-making processes.


Funds From Operations (FFO) serves as a crucial measure for entities operating in the realm of real estate, particularly Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs). The main purpose of FFO is to deliver a clearer picture of the cash performance of a REIT which is often distorted by traditional profit measurements due to the heavy depreciation of property assets. By excluding depreciation and amortization of real estate related entities, FFO provides a truer reflection of performance, aiding investors and stakeholders in their financial decision-making.Moreover, FFO is often used by REITs to define the cash flow from their operations. It is a determinant of the trusts’ ability to finance projects, repay debt, and make distributions to stakeholders, as it accurately illustrates how much cash a REIT is generating. Therefore, this non-GAAP measure is significant in assessing the operating performance and the financial flexibility of a REIT, helping stakeholders understand the fundamentals of a company in assessing its operating results and future prospects.


1. Simon Property Group: A global leader in the ownership of premier shopping, dining, entertainment and mixed-use destinations, Simon Property Group reported a Funds From Operations (FFO) of $2.77 per share for the first quarter of 2021, exceeding predictions and representing a significant percentage of their overall earnings.2. Boston Properties: As one of the largest owners, managers, and developers of first-class office properties in the U.S, Boston Properties reported an FFO of $6.93 per share in 2020. The FFO is a crucial financial benchmark for real estate investment trusts like Boston Properties, as it reflects the cash generated from their core business operations.3. AvalonBay Communities: This real estate investment trust that focuses on developing, redeveloping, acquiring and managing high-quality apartment communities in high barrier-to-entry markets of the United States reported an FFO per share of $5.62 for the year ended 2020. Despite a challenging year due to the pandemic, AvalonBay was able to generate substantial funds from their operations. Remember, FFO is especially important in industries like real estate, where acquisition, renovation, sale and leasing operations are the main business activities, and provides a more accurate reflection of the company’s financial performance than traditional earnings or cash flow metrics.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Funds From Operations (FFO)?

Funds From Operations (FFO) is a financial performance measure used primarily in the analysis of real estate investment trusts (REITs). It calculates the cash generated from the operations of a company by adding depreciation and amortization to earnings and subtracting any gains on sales.

Why is FFO important in the real estate industry?

FFO is significant in the real estate industry as it provides a more accurate measure of the operating performance of a REIT rather than traditional net income. Properties’ values naturally depreciate over time, a factor not considered in net income, making FFO a more relevant calculation.

How is FFO calculated?

The formula for FFO is: Net Income + Depreciation + Amortization – Gains on Sales of Property = FFO.

How does FFO differ from Earnings per Share (EPS)?

Earnings per share considers only a firm’s net income, while FFO adds back in depreciation and subtracts the one-time sales of properties. This makes FFO a more accurate reflection of the ongoing operations of a REIT, rather than changes in assets.

What does a high FFO indicate?

A high FFO indicates a strong financial performance of the company and that it generates enough cash from its operations. This is a positive sign, as it indicates a company can fund its activities, pay down debt, or return money to shareholders.

Is it possible for a company to manipulate its FFO?

As with any financial metric, it’s possible for a company to manipulate its FFO through aggressive accounting practices. For example, REITs could overstate earnings or understate depreciation to inflate their FFO. But such actions could have serious legal and financial consequences.

How should investors use FFO?

Investors should use FFO as one measure, among others, to assess the performance of a REIT. Comparing the FFO of various REITs can give investors a better idea of which are performing well in respect to their operations. However, it should not be the only factor considered when making investment decisions.

Related Finance Terms

  • Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs): These are companies that operate income-producing real estate, and they often use FFOs as an important financial metric.
  • Net Income: This refers to a company’s total earnings, and it is a starting point when calculating FFOs.
  • Depreciation: This is the process of allocating the cost of an asset over its useful life. For FFOs, depreciation is usually added back as it is a non-cash expense.
  • Amortization: This refers to paying off debt in regular installments over a period of time. Like depreciation, it is added back when calculating FFOs as it doesn’t represent real cash outflows.
  • Capital Expenditure (CapEx): These are funds used by a company for acquisition, upgrade, and maintenance of physical assets. FFO excludes certain forms of CapEx, providing a clearer picture of cash operations.

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