Close this search box.

Table of Contents

Free Rider Problem


The Free Rider Problem refers to a situation in an economic system where certain individuals consume more than their fair share of a resource, or pay less for it, while others pay for the cost. It occurs when the usage of a public good or service is not restricted and individuals are not charged proportionately for its use. This can lead to underproduction or overuse of the resource, ultimately leading to market inefficiencies.


The phonetic pronunciation of “Free Rider Problem” is: /friː raɪdər ˈprɑbləm/

Key Takeaways

  1. Public Goods and Non-Excludability: The Free Rider Problem mainly arises with regard to the provision of public goods which are non-excludable and non-rivalrous. Non-excludability means that individuals cannot be effectively prevented from using the good, leading some people to consume without paying, hence becoming free riders.
  2. Underproduction of Goods: The existence of free riders may result in the underproduction or non-production of public goods as the benefits are enjoyed by all, but the costs are borne only by the few who contribute. This leads to market failure and thus, public goods need to be provided by the government or some sort of collective action.
  3. Solution to the Issue: Solutions to the free rider problem include making the public good private, government provision or subsidy of goods, or the creation of a sense of social obligation and collective responsibility. Mandatory participation, preferred by many governments, can also be a solution, such as, taxes for national defense or law enforcement.


The Free Rider Problem is a crucial concept in business and finance because it pertains to situations where certain individuals or entities benefit from resources, goods, or services without paying for the cost of the benefit, putting an unfair burden on others. This can lead to inefficiencies in the provision and consumption of goods, market failures, and even hinder public goods’ or services’ sustainability. For businesses, understanding and addressing the Free Rider Problem is essential for implementing fair pricing strategies, ensuring adequate resource allocation, promoting cooperative behaviors, and ultimately, maintaining the viability and profitability of their operations.


The Free Rider Problem is a key term used extensively in the realms of economics, finance, and business to pinpoint a particular scenario wherein an individual or a group benefits from a resource, or collective good, without bearing the cost or contributing to its provision. This concept primarily helps in understanding the inherently complex nuances related to public goods or services – resources that are non-excludable and non-rival in consumption. The purpose of studying the Free Rider Problem is to acknowledge potential issues that may arise when the cost of a societal or business good is not equally shared among its beneficiaries.The understanding of the Free Rider Problem is highly instrumental for governments, policymakers, corporate leaders, and economists as they formulate strategies and regulations. For instance, in public funding or social initiatives, it assists in identifying and mitigating scenarios where the beneficiaries may not contribute equitably, thereby straining the resources and potentially leading to their depletion. From a business perspective, it guides enterprises to strategize for collective bargaining scenarios where some stakeholders might benefit without contributing to the cost or effort. Overall, the Free Rider Problem serves a mirrored lens to examine situations of potential socioeconomic imbalance and hence guides towards more balanced, fair, and sustainable approaches both in public policy and business environment.


1. Public Broadcasting: Public television and radio stations, such as PBS and NPR, rely on donations from viewers and listeners to fund their operations. However, the content they produce is freely available to anyone with a TV or radio. Many people enjoy these services without ever making a donation – the free rider problem. However, if too many people choose not to donate (thus, becoming free riders), these entities may not receive enough funding to continue creating free, quality content.2. Public Health Vaccinations: Vaccinations can also illustrate a free rider problem. For the cost of a population immunization to be justified, a high percentage of the community should be immunized (also known as herd immunity). However, some individuals may choose not to vaccinate, assuming that they will still receive the benefits of herd immunity because other people will get vaccinated. If too many people decide to free ride on herd immunity, it can lead to outbreaks of disease.3. Environmental Conservation: In many countries, public goods like clean air and clean water depend on cooperation from both businesses and ordinary citizens. Companies are expected to follow regulations to prevent pollution, and citizens are encouraged to recycle and reduce waste. However, some companies and individuals might choose to ignore these guidelines, assuming that their individual contribution doesn’t matter in the grand scheme of things, or that they can enjoy clean air and water without doing their part to preserve them. This is a classic case of the free rider problem — if everyone thinks like this, it could lead to significant environmental damage.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the free rider problem?

The free rider problem refers to a situation in economics where some individuals consume more than their fair share of a shared resource, or pay less for it, while others pay for the resources. This issue typically occurs when goods or services are non-excludable in nature, meaning they are available for everyone to use and it’s hard to prevent anyone from using them.

What is an example of the free rider problem?

A common example of the free rider problem is public transportation. Everyone benefits from public transportation, but not everyone contributes to it financially. Some commuters may sneak in without purchasing a ticket, thus becoming free riders.

How does the free rider problem affect a business?

Businesses often encounter the free rider problem when they offer a product or service that benefits all potential customers, not just those who pay for it. This can lead to underfunding and inadequate provision of the product or service. If enough customers choose not to pay, the business could become unsustainable.

How is the free rider problem resolved?

There are multiple approaches to resolving the free rider problem. This can include imposing taxes or fees to pay for public goods and services, creating private goods or services out of those that are public, or encouraging voluntary contributions through incentives or moral reasoning.

Is the free rider problem only associated with public goods?

While the free rider problem is most commonly associated with public goods, it can also apply to club goods – goods which are non-rivalrous but excludable. For example, a subscription television service could face free rider problems if users share their access codes with non-paying individuals.

How does the free rider problem affect the economy?

The free rider problem can potentially hinder the provision of public goods and lead to market inefficiency. If many individuals decide to free ride, the good or service may become underprovided or not provided at all, leading to a loss of overall economic welfare.

Related Finance Terms

Sources for More Information

About Our Editorial Process

At Due, we are dedicated to providing simple money and retirement advice that can make a big impact in your life. Our team closely follows market shifts and deeply understands how to build REAL wealth. All of our articles undergo thorough editing and review by financial experts, ensuring you get reliable and credible money advice.

We partner with leading publications, such as Nasdaq, The Globe and Mail, Entrepreneur, and more, to provide insights on retirement, current markets, and more.

We also host a financial glossary of over 7000 money/investing terms to help you learn more about how to take control of your finances.

View our editorial process

About Our Journalists

Our journalists are not just trusted, certified financial advisers. They are experienced and leading influencers in the financial realm, trusted by millions to provide advice about money. We handpick the best of the best, so you get advice from real experts. Our goal is to educate and inform, NOT to be a ‘stock-picker’ or ‘market-caller.’ 

Why listen to what we have to say?

While Due does not know how to predict the market in the short-term, our team of experts DOES know how you can make smart financial decisions to plan for retirement in the long-term.

View our expert review board

About Due

Due makes it easier to retire on your terms. We give you a realistic view on exactly where you’re at financially so when you retire you know how much money you’ll get each month. Get started today.

Due Fact-Checking Standards and Processes

To ensure we’re putting out the highest content standards, we sought out the help of certified financial experts and accredited individuals to verify our advice. We also rely on them for the most up to date information and data to make sure our in-depth research has the facts right, for today… Not yesterday. Our financial expert review board allows our readers to not only trust the information they are reading but to act on it as well. Most of our authors are CFP (Certified Financial Planners) or CRPC (Chartered Retirement Planning Counselor) certified and all have college degrees. Learn more about annuities, retirement advice and take the correct steps towards financial freedom and knowing exactly where you stand today. Learn everything about our top-notch financial expert reviews below… Learn More