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Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE)


Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) is a measure of how much cash is available to the equity shareholders of a company after all expenses, reinvestment, and debt repayment are taken into account. It is used to assess a company’s ability to pay dividends or buy back stock. FCFE can be seen as a sort of ‘leftovers’ available to shareholders after all business expenses and obligations have been met.


The phonetics for the keyword: Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) would be:Free: /friː/Cash: /kæʃ/Flow: /floʊ/to: /tuː/Equity: /ˈɛkwɪti/And for the acronym FCFE: /ɛf siː ɛf iː/

Key Takeaways


  1. Indication of Financial Health: Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) is a measure of how much cash is available to the equity shareholders of a company after all expenses, reinvestments, and debt repayments are taken care of. It is an important metric that gives investors a better understanding of a corporation’s financial stability and its ability to pay dividends or repay stockholders.
  2. Calculation of FCFE: The Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) is calculated by taking the Net Income, subtracting Net Investment in Fixed Assets and Working Capital, and then adding net borrowing. This calculation provides an exhaustive measure of a company’s cash flow that is attributed to equity holders after all obligations and investments are sorted.
  3. Investment Decision Making: FCFE is a critical factor in investment decision-making. It shows whether a company generates enough cash to reward its shareholders through dividends or buybacks after all expenses are paid for. Hence, a positive FCFE is a good sign for investors, whereas a negative FCFE could be a red flag indicating potential financial issues.



Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) is a crucial metric in business finance as it measures the cash available to equity shareholders after all expenses, reinvestments, and debt repayments are made. By highlighting the surplus cash flow, FCFE provides a clear picture of a company’s financial health and performance. It gives a direct insight into the company’s capability to satisfy shareholder’s dividends or reinvest back into the business. As such, this measurement is often a vital portion of an investor’s assessment when they decide whether or not to invest in a given company. It remains a significant indicator for estimating intrinsic value of companies through discounted cash flow analysis, making it an essential aspect of any investment analysis and valuation.


The purpose of Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) is to determine the amount of cash that could be potentially distributed to the shareholders of a company after all expenses, reinvestments and debt repayments are taken into account. Businesses use it as an important measure to ascertain if they have enough surplus funds to reward their shareholders with dividends without impacting the firm’s growth or operational efficiency. Furthermore, it helps investors understand how a company’s cash flow stands up against its equity obligations.In addition to this, FCFE is a significant valuation technique in the finance industry. It’s integral to the Discounted Cash Flow model which financial analysts use to calculate a business’s intrinsic value based on its expected future free cash flow. Using this financial metric, analysts and prospective investors can determine whether a business is under or overvalued by comparing its intrinsic value with the market price. Therefore, FCFE is crucial in guiding investment decisions.


Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) is a measure of how much cash is available to the equity shareholders after all expenses, reinvestment, and debt repayment. It is a significant aspect in evaluating a company’s financial stability and investment potential. Here are three real-world examples:1. Apple Inc.: In 2021, Apple generated an impressive amount of FCFE. After paying all its expenses, investing in new products and repaying its debts, the company still had a substantial sum left over. This high FCFE value made Apple more attractive to investors, as it indicated a robust financial health and the ability to provide returns to shareholders via dividends or share buybacks.2. Amazon Inc.: Amazon is another company that exhibits a high FCFE. Despite its heavy investments in new businesses, warehouses, and technologies, it still generates a significant amount of free cash flow. As a result, Amazon has a strong cash reserve, used for diverse purposes like acquiring other businesses, launching new services, and even for potential dividend payments, increasing its appeal for equity shareholders.3. Boeing Co: In contrast, Boeing’s FCFE has been negative for some recent periods due to crisis situations (like the MAX 737 grounding and the COVID-19 pandemic), which forced the company to spend more on issue resolution, thus reducing its free cash flow and giving potential investors hesitation about the company’s capacity to provide shareholder returns.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE)?

Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) is a measure of how much cash is available to the equity shareholders of a company after all expenses, reinvestment, and debt repayment. In essence, it’s the cash that could be distributed to shareholders if the company decided to distribute all of it.

How is FCFE calculated?

FCFE can be calculated in several ways, one of the simpler ways would be to subtract the net capital expenditure, working capital changes, and net debt issued from the Net Income of a company.

What’s the difference between FCFE and FCFF?

Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) and Free Cash Flow to Firm (FCFF) are similar but they serve different purposes. FCFE accounts for cash left over for shareholders, once capital expenditures and debt repayments are made. FCFF, however, is a measure of the cash available to all of a company’s investors, including both shareholders and bondholders.

What does a positive FCFE indicate?

A positive FCFE indicates that there is surplus cash in the company after covering the capital expenditures and debt repayments, which could be distributed among the shareholders or reinvested back into the business.

What does a negative FCFE indicate?

A negative FCFE means the company isn’t generating enough cash to cover capital expenditures and debt repayment and hence, it may be a red flag for investors, suggesting issues with liquidity or the firm’s operations.

How does FCFE help in business valuation?

FCFE is one of the most important factors in business valuation and equity valuation. It provides an explicit measure of the cash generated for equity holders and it helps investors and analysts to model future dividend payments and to subsequently evaluate the intrinsic value of a company.

Can FCFE be used to determine a company’s financial health?

Yes, FCFE can give a good indication of a company’s financial health. A company with consistently positive FCFE is generally considered to be in good financial health. However, it’s not the only indicator, and should be used in conjunction with other financial metrics for a holistic evaluation.

Is a high FCFE always a good thing?

Although a high FCFE may be indicative of strong financial performance, it is not always a good thing. A consistently high FCFE could also mean that the company isn’t investing enough in capital expenditures. Likewise, a sudden spike in FCFE could signal a short-term gain at the cost of long-term growth. It’s important to understand the nuances of the company’s financials before drawing conclusions based solely on FCFE.

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