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Family Limited Partnership (FLP)


A Family Limited Partnership (FLP) is a legal business structure designed for family-owned enterprises, which allows for centralized management, asset protection, and tax benefits. In an FLP, general partners hold management authority and assume liability, while limited partners are typically passive investors with limited liability. FLPs can facilitate cooperation among family members, preserve family wealth, and enable strategic estate and gift tax planning.


The phonetic pronunciation of “Family Limited Partnership (FLP)” is as follows:Family: ˈfæməliLimited: ˈlɪmɪtɪdPartnership: ˈpɑrtnərʃɪpFLP: ɛf ɛl pi

Key Takeaways

  1. Asset Protection and Estate Planning: An FLP allows for distributive protection and management of family assets, thereby helping with estate planning and the efficient transfer of business interests or property. It effectively reduces gift and estate taxes by enabling owners to transfer limited partnership interests to their beneficiaries.
  2. Control and Management: The FLP structure allows general partners to retain control over assets and management of the partnership, while limited partners are only responsible for their financial contributions. This ensures that family members or key individuals have control over decision-making processes, while other partners participate as passive investors.
  3. Tax Benefits: An FLP can provide substantial tax benefits by reducing the overall income and transfer tax burden. This is achieved through valuation discounts on limited partnership interests, annual gifting of interests to family members, and asset appreciation being taxed at lower rates.


The Family Limited Partnership (FLP) is an important business and finance term, as it provides a strategic estate planning tool for families seeking to consolidate, manage, and transfer their wealth and property across generations. It allows family members to pool together their assets into a single legal entity, thus effectively lowering the overall tax burden, protecting their financial interests and providing better asset management. Moreover, the FLP structure grants general partners control over the entity while distributing partnership interests to younger family members, reducing estate and gift taxes significantly. By utilizing FLP, families can safeguard their financial legacy, minimize potential liabilities, and concurrently foster a sense of unity and shared responsibility among family members.


Family Limited Partnerships (FLP) serve a strategic purpose as a valuable estate planning tool predominantly employed by high-net-worth families to efficiently manage wealth transfer and minimize tax liabilities. This structure allows families to pool together their assets, including businesses, investments, property holdings, among others, into a single, controlled entity. Family members acquiring shares in the partnership realize reduced gift and estate taxes, as well as protection from personal creditors. Furthermore, FLP provides a platform for instilling financial concepts and values among family members, accentuating the importance of responsible wealth management, collaboration, and smooth succession planning.

FLPs play a pivotal role in maintaining a balance between preserving family wealth and ensuring long-term business success. Typically, more senior family members act as general partners, retaining control over day-to-day operations and decision-making processes. On the other hand, younger generations participate as limited partners, gradually increasing their involvement and influence as they gain experience and understanding of the business. This controlled transition facilitates efficient decision-making, minimizes conflicts, and ensures the continuity of family values and strategic direction. Additionally, FLPs grant greater flexibility in wealth distribution, as general partners can establish varied ownership percentages, enabling fine-tuned adjustments as the family and business circumstances evolve.


1. Real Estate Investment: A family, the Smiths, decide to pool their resources together to invest in real estate properties. They form a Family Limited Partnership (FLP) to organize and manage their real estate holdings. By doing so, they benefit from limited liability and better tax management. The parents, John and Jane, serve as general partners and manage the day-to-day operations of the FLP, while the children hold limited partnership interests and enjoy the benefits of the real estate investments.

2. Family Business Succession: The Liu family owns a successful manufacturing business, and the parents want to gradually transfer the business ownership to their children to ensure a seamless transition of management and ownership. They establish an FLP to achieve this goal. In this FLP, the parents remain the general partners and maintain control of the business, while the children become limited partners. Over time, the parents slowly transfer more limited partnership shares to the children, allowing them to have a growing stake in the family business without disrupting its operations.

3. Wealth Management and Estate Planning: The Johnson family has accumulated a significant amount of wealth and wants to engage in effective estate planning to minimize estate taxes and protect their assets for future generations. They create an FLP to hold various investments, such as stocks, bonds, and cash, and manage these assets in a tax-efficient manner. The parents act as general partners, while the children and grandchildren are limited partners. Through the FLP, the parents can gradually transfer their limited partnership interests to the children and grandchildren, thereby reducing their taxable estate and providing wealth protection for the family.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is a Family Limited Partnership (FLP)?

A Family Limited Partnership (FLP) is a legal business entity formed to manage and control family assets, such as real estate, investments, or business operations. It comprises of two types of partners: general partners, who manage the FLP, and limited partners, who invest in it but have limited control over its operations. FLPs help to centralize the management of family wealth, provide asset protection, and establish a foundation for estate and tax planning strategies.

How does a Family Limited Partnership work?

In an FLP, family members contribute assets to the partnership in exchange for general or limited partnership interests. General partners have full management authority and control over the FLP’s assets, while limited partners have a limited role and minimal control over the partnership’s affairs. The FLP allows income, deductions, and credits to flow through the partnership to the individual partners, who report their respective shares of the partnership’s financial activities on their personal income tax returns.

What are the benefits of using a Family Limited Partnership?

FLPs offer several benefits, such as asset protection, estate tax reduction, centralized management of assets, and flexibility in allocating income and deductions among partners. They also allow for the transfer of wealth from one generation to the next by gifting limited partnership interests to younger family members while keeping the control of the assets through the general partner’s authority.

Are there any drawbacks to using a Family Limited Partnership?

Some disadvantages of using an FLP include the required adherence to complex legal and regulatory guidelines, a potentially high initial cost of forming and maintaining the FLP structure, and the possibility that the tax benefits associated with the FLP may change due to evolving tax laws or regulations.

How do I set up a Family Limited Partnership?

To set up an FLP, first consult with an experienced attorney or a financial advisor to determine if this structure is suitable for your situation. If you decide to proceed, the attorney will prepare and file the necessary documents, including the Certificate of Limited Partnership and the Partnership Agreement. They will also help you determine the fair-market value of the assets contributed to the FLP and properly allocate partnership interests.

Can anyone establish a Family Limited Partnership?

Although FLPs are most commonly used by families with substantial wealth, any family seeking to consolidate the management of its assets and benefit from the associated tax and estate planning opportunities can establish an FLP. However, it is crucial to consult with legal and financial professionals to ensure that this structure is suitable for your family’s specific circumstances.

Related Finance Terms

  • Asset protection
  • Estate planning
  • General partner
  • Limited partners
  • Gift tax

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