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Exogenous Growth


Exogenous growth, in economics, refers to growth that is driven by factors outside the economic system, such as technological progress or population growth. It is governed by factors that are not influenced by the state of the economy or by economic variables. This concept is represented in models that focus on technological progress as the primary driver of economic growth.


The phonetic pronunciation of “Exogenous Growth” is: “ek-soh-juh-nuhs grohth.”

Key Takeaways

Sure, here you go:

  1. Exogenous Growth Theory asserts that economic growth is primarily influenced by factors outside of the internal workings of an economy. It suggests that technological progress and population growth are key drivers of growth, but they are exogenously determined, meaning they come from outside the model and are unexplained by it.
  2. The theory incorporates basic elements such as labor, capital, and technology, but it doesn’t fully account for factors like human capital, technological innovation, and institutional factors. It also assumes that economies can continuously grow without facing diminishing returns to capital.
  3. The theory has been criticized for its simplification and inability to explain the sources of technological progress, leading to the development of endogenous growth theory, which aims to provide internal explanations for growth by considering factors like innovation and education within the model.


Exogenous growth, an economic concept, is significant in business/finance as it provides a framework to comprehend and predict long-term economic growth trends. It revolves around the idea that growth is primarily influenced by external factors, such as technological advancement, and not directly by factors within the economy like capital or labor. The phenomenon helps economists and businesses plan strategies by highlighting the critical role of innovation and knowledge in economic expansion. The theory posits that policies aimed at these parameters can effectively stimulate growth. Thus, insight from exogenous growth models guides policymakers, businesses, and investors in making informed decisions related to technology-intensive sectors and R&D investments for sustainable economic growth.


Exogenous Growth is a key component of economic theory that revolves around enhancing productivity and economic growth, largely impacted by factors external to the economy. The purpose of this concept is to analyze economic development by concentrating on external variables such as technological advancement, population growth, and policy measures, which are often considered autonomous to the economic system. The Exogenous Growth Theory, propounded by Robert Solow and Trevor Swan, acknowledged these ‘outside forces’ as the principal drivers behind long-term economic growth, rather than focusing solely on capital accumulation that earlier economic models typically highlighted. The use of this theory is wide-ranging, particularly in economic policy and planning. Policymakers often use this approach to measure how external factors would impact economic expansion, which ultimately aids in devising strategies and measures to stimulate economic growth and improving living standards. Additionally, firms and businesses may also utilize the notion of exogenous growth for their strategic planning. It allows them to foresee the broader economic environment influenced by technology innovation or demographic changes, and accordingly align their business strategies. Therefore, the understanding of Exogenous Growth is imperative for both macroeconomic policies and business strategies.


Exogenous growth is a concept in economics that pertains to an increase in the growth rate of the potential output of an economy due to factors not related to capital and labor. These factors include, but are not limited to, technological improvements, better education, policy changes etc. Here are three real world examples:1. Silicon Valley’s Tech Boom: The region of California known as Silicon Valley grew immensely starting in the 1970s and continuing to the present day due largely to technological advancements and innovations. Companies such as Google, Apple, Facebook and many others all created and utilized new forms of technology (for example, the internet, smartphones, and social media platforms), contributing to massive economic growth. This is considered exogenous because it was not driven by a simple increase in capital or labor.2. India’s Green Revolution: In the late 1960s and 70s, India underwent a significant transformation in their agricultural sector, widely referred to as the Green Revolution. The use of high-yielding variety (HYV) seeds, fertilizers, better irrigation methods, and increased use of machines in farming led to a substantial rise in agricultural production. This was exogenous growth as it wasn’t from an increase in farmland or labor but due to use of improved methods and technology.3. Educational Advancements: Another real-world example of exogenous growth could be seen in the impact of education on a country’s economic growth. For example, in many Scandinavian countries like Finland and Sweden, heavy investments have been made in their education systems, leading to a highly educated population who are, in turn, capable of driving economic growth. This is not due to an increase in capital or labor, but rather because the labor force is more productive due to education, thus this could be seen as exogenous growth.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Exogenous Growth?

Exogenous growth, also known as the classical growth theory, is a concept within economics that explains a nation’s sustained economic growth as a result from factors external to the economy, such as technological innovation and improvement in human capital.

How does Exogenous Growth differ from Endogenous Growth?

Unlike endogenous growth, exogenous growth theory doesn’t directly address long-term economic growth driven by internal factors like capital accumulation or policy decisions. It stresses more on external factors like technology.

What are examples of factors causing Exogenous Growth?

Technological advancements, policy changes in other countries or global economic conditions, population growth, and increased skills and education among labor force are examples of factors causing exogenous growth.

What are the implications of Exogenous Growth for policy-making?

Since exogenous growth relies on external factors, such as technological advancement, it implies that policy-making may have only a limited impact on a nation’s long-term economic growth.

Who are the key proponents of Exogenous Growth theory?

Robert Solow and Trevor Swan are the economists credited for the development of exogenous growth theory, often referred to as the Solow-Swan model.

How does Exogenous Growth relate to the Solow-Swan model?

The Solow-Swan model is a specific example of an exogenous growth model. It considers labor and capital as inputs for production and technological progress as exogenous.

Is Exogenous Growth widely accepted?

While there’s significant utility in the exogenous growth model, it’s not without criticism. Some economists argue that it overemphasizes external factors and underestimates the power of internal influences, such as governmental fiscal policy, innovation fostered within the economy, etc.

Can Exogenous Growth lead to economic imbalances?

Some economists argue that exogenous growth can result in economic imbalances because growth is not linked to internal factors, such as the level of savings and investment or the policies of the country concerned.

Related Finance Terms

  • Capital accumulation: The increase of capital resources, such as equipment or buildings, which can contribute to growth.
  • Technological progress: An increase in knowledge and technologies enhances productivity, thus driving economic growth.
  • Solow Growth Model: A model that explains long-term economic growth based on labor, capital and technological progress.
  • Human Capital: Refers to the knowledge, skills and experience of employees, which can contribute to economic growth.
  • Productivity: The efficiency of production of goods or services, which is a key factor in economic growth.

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