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In finance, the “Euro” refers to the official currency used by 19 of the 27 countries of the European Union, collectively known as the Eurozone. Established in 1999, it’s the second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the U.S. Dollar. It’s governed by the European Central Bank headquartered in Frankfurt, Germany.


The phonetic spelling of “Euro” is “ˈyʊəroʊ” in the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet).

Key Takeaways

<ol><li>The Euro (€) is the official currency used by 19 of the 27-member countries of the European Union. These countries combined to form the Eurozone.</li><li>The Euro is managed and administered by the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Eurosystem, which comprises central banks of the EU countries that have adopted the Euro.</li><li>Besides being the second-largest reserve currency, the Euro is also the second-most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar.</li></ol>


The term “Euro” is crucial in business/finance as it’s the official currency of 19 out of 27 European Union countries, also known as the “Eurozone.” As the second most traded currency in the world after the U.S dollar, it significantly impacts global trade and economy. It facilitates free trade among member countries and lowers transaction costs, fostering economic stability and growth in Europe. Corporations and investors dealing in international trade use the Euro for transactions, pricing and risk management. It’s also a reserve currency, providing a hedging mechanism for central banks worldwide and influencing global forex markets. The Euro’s strength and stability play a vital role in shaping global economic conditions.


The Euro serves as the common currency for 19 of the 27 member states of the European Union, known as the Eurozone. It was primarily established to foster economic integration and stability within Europe, simplifying cross-border trade, investment and tourism. By possessing a shared currency, these countries aim to remove the confusion and complexity of exchange rates, thereby promoting a unified market where goods, services, and labor can move freely. This arrangement makes business transactions easier, reduces costs, and provides predictability for businesses operating in the region.Furthermore, the Euro is not only used as a medium of exchange, but also as a benchmark for global financial markets, particularly in commodities pricing such as oil. This European currency presents a significant part of the foreign exchange reserve for numerous countries, underpinning its global importance beyond the European boundaries. Countries outside the Eurozone also use the Euro for pegging their currencies in order to stabilize their exchange rates. Hence, the purpose of the Euro extends well beyond simplifying transactions within the Eurozone; it plays a vital role in global finance and trade.


1. European Central Bank: The ECB is the institution that manages the Euro, the official currency of 19 of the 27 EU countries. Their actions and policies have a significant impact on the value of the Euro, financial markets and the economy of the Euro area.2. The Euro as a Reserve Currency: Many countries that are not part of the Eurozone hold Euros as a reserve currency. For example, China and Russia have diversified their foreign currency reserves by holding a significant proportion of them in Euros. This shows the importance of the Euro in global finance.3. Currency Exchange: Travelers who plan a trip from a non-Euro country to a Euro country need to convert their currency into Euros, thereby directly experiencing the use of Euro in their transactions. For example, an American traveler going to France would need to convert their dollars into Euros, thus experiencing a key foreign exchange aspect of the world of finance.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the Euro?

The Euro is the official currency used by 19 of the 27 member countries of the European Union. This group of countries is known as the Eurozone. It is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar.

When was the Euro introduced, and why?

The Euro was introduced electronically on January 1, 1999, though physical notes and coins were introduced in 2002. Its primary purpose was to create economic stability and simplify commerce among member countries.

Which countries use the Euro?

As of now, 19 out of the 27 EU member countries use the Euro as their official currency. These include: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.

What are the denominations of Euro banknotes and coins?

Euro banknotes are issued in €5, €10, €20, €50, €100, €200 and €500 denominations. The coins come in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 cents, as well as €1 and €2.

How is the value of the Euro determined?

The value of the Euro, like any currency, is determined by various factors including inflation, interest rates, government debt, terms of trade, political stability and economic performance of the Eurozone countries.

How can I convert my money into Euros?

You can exchange your money for Euros at banks, foreign exchange bureaus, and online currency exchange platforms. The exchange rate will vary depending on the service used and market conditions.

Is the Euro controlled by a single central bank?

The Euro is managed and administered by the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Eurosystem which comprises the central banks of the Eurozone countries.

How does the Euro affect global trade?

As one of the world’s most traded currencies, the Euro plays a crucial role in global trade. It simplifies trade within the Eurozone by eliminating the need for currency conversion and exchange rate risks. It also has significant influence on global currency exchange rates, commodity prices, and balance of trade.

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