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Escrowed Shares


Escrowed Shares refer to shares that are held in an escrow account, under the control of a third party, until certain conditions or obligations are met. These conditions typically relate to performance milestones or specified time periods. They are commonly seen in actions like mergers and acquisitions, initial public offerings (IPOs), or as part of employee stock option plans.


The phonetic pronunciation of “Escrowed Shares” would be: Ess-krohd Shea-rz

Key Takeaways

  1. Definition: Escrowed shares are shares that are issued but not immediately accessible to the holder, typically held by a third party until certain conditions or obligations are met.
  2. Purpose: They are often used in situations like acquisitions, mergers, or initial public offerings, where they act as a form of collateral to ensure that specific agreements are fulfilled. They can ensure protection for both parties involved in a transaction.
  3. Liquidity: Until the stipulated conditions are met for release, escrowed shares are considered illiquid assets as they cannot be sold or traded. Hence, the restrictions on these shares should be clearly understood by the holder to prevent any potential financial implications.


Escrowed shares are important in the world of business and finance as they represent a financial security measure employed during significant corporate transactions like mergers, acquisitions, or during initial public offerings (IPOs). These shares are designated as such because they are held in an escrow account, under the watch of a neutral third party, until specified conditions are met per the agreement between the business parties. This process safeguards both transacting parties. For sellers, it ensures their shares are secure and for buyers, it ensures the agreed-upon conditions, often related to performance or time periods, are met before the shares are fully released. The presence or absence of escrowed shares in a deal can greatly influence business decisions and strategies, and govern the risk levels for both parties involved.


Escrowed shares serve a critical purpose in the business and financial landscape by promoting stability and security in share transactions. Essentially, escrow services function as a neutral third party mediating transactions between buyers and sellers. These shares are placed in an escrow account, meaning they are under the custodial care of a trusted third party until certain conditions, as specified in an agreement, are fulfilled. This acts as a cushion against any potential risk of non-fulfillment of the agreed terms by either of the parties involved in the transaction. In mergers and acquisitions, escrowed shares are utilized as a safeguard against potential liabilities or outstanding obligations of the company being acquired. The shares will remain in the escrow account during a predetermined period until those obligations are met. They may also be used in employee incentive programs, where shares are put in escrow and released to employees once they meet certain performance milestones. Essentially, escrowed shares play a crucial role in promoting trust, verifying transactional integrity, and ensuring that the interests and obligations of all parties are adequately protected.


1. Startup Investment: Sometimes, when a new business receives investment, there could be a percentage of shares that are escrowed. This can be used as a protection measure for the investor, making sure that the founders cannot just take the investment and immediately sell their stake. These shares will be locked away in escrow for a predetermined period of time and only released to the owners once certain conditions or benchmarks set by the investor are reached.2. Real Estate Transactions: When purchasing a property, the buyer holds the right to use escrowed shares as a form of security until all the terms of the contract are met. During this time, the shares are held in an escrow account and cannot be sold or transferred. Once the transaction is complete, the shares are then released from escrow to the property seller.3. Employee Stock Options: Companies often use escrowed shares as part of their incentive packages for employees. The employees are given a specific number of the company’s shares but these are held in an escrow account for a specific period of time. This incentivizes employees to remain with the company for longer periods as the shares can only be accessed after the predetermined time period or upon meeting certain performance milestones.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What are Escrowed Shares?

Escrowed Shares refer to securities that are held by a third party on behalf of the first two parties involved in a transaction until certain conditions are met. These shares are not directly in the control of the owner and cannot be sold or transferred until specific stipulations are fulfilled.

Why are shares held in escrow?

Shares are held in escrow to ensure financial safety and transparency in transactions between two parties. They are often a part of merger and acquisition deals, or used to hold shares newly issued in an IPO, typically releasing them in stages to stabilize the market.

What are the conditions that need to be met for Escrowed Shares to be released?

The conditions vary and are agreed upon by the transacting parties before the shares are put in escrow. They may include certain time frames, performance milestones, regulatory approvals, or other predefined terms in the agreement.

How are Escrowed Shares different from other shares?

Essentially, escrowed shares and other shares are the same. The main difference is the temporary restriction on the sale, transfer, or disposal of escrowed shares due to the contractual conditions to be met.

Who can act as the escrow agent?

An escrow agent is typically a trusted and impartial third party. Some of the entities that can serve as an escrow agent include legal firms, banks, and other financial institutions known for their fiduciary responsibilities.

What happens if the conditions are not met within the stipulated timeframe?

If the conditions in the escrow agreement are not fulfilled within the given timeframe, the agreement’s specifics will dictate what happens. Depending on the agreement, the shares might continue to be held in escrow, be returned to the company, or handled in other ways per the agreement’s terms.

Can Escrowed Shares be used as collateral?

Whether escrowed shares can be used as collateral largely depends on the terms set out in the escrow agreement. In some arrangements, they might be, but generally, because the holder does not have full control over these shares, they are normally not used as collateral.

Related Finance Terms

  • Escrow Agreement: This refers to a legal document detailing the terms and conditions under which the shares are held in escrow. It is signed by both the grantor (share seller) and beneficiary (share buyer).
  • Vesting Period: This is the predetermined period that a shareholder must wait before they can claim their escrowed shares. Until this period passes, the shares are considered unvested and the shareholder has restricted rights.
  • Release Conditions: These are specific conditions that must be met for the escrowed shares to be released to shareholders. Common release conditions include achieving performance targets or reaching a certain date.
  • Escrow Agent: This is a neutral third party who holds the escrowed shares until the release conditions are met. The escrow agent ensures that both parties uphold the terms of the escrow agreement.
  • Shareholder Rights: These are the rights assigned to the shareholder during the escrow period. While some rights may be limited (like the right to sell), others (like the right to dividends) may still be maintained.

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