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Escrow is a legal concept in which a financial instrument or asset is held by a third party on behalf of two parties transacting with each other. This arrangement is often used in real estate transactions to ensure funds are available for closing costs and house purchases. The third party, or escrow agent, ensures that conditions of the transaction are met before distributing the funds.


The phonetic pronunciation of the word “Escrow” is: /ˈeskroʊ/

Key Takeaways

  1. Third-Party Mediation: Escrow acts as a neutral third party that holds and regulates payment of the funds required for two parties involved in a transaction. It helps make transactions more secure by keeping the payment in a secure escrow account which is only released when all of the terms of an agreement are met as overseen by the escrow company.
  2. Protection for Buyers and Sellers: It’s designed to protect both buyers and sellers. For buyers, escrow ensures that they won’t have to pay the seller until they’ve received the product or service they’ve ordered in the agreed state. For sellers, it guarantees that the payment is already secured and ready even before they deliver the product or service, minimizing their risk.
  3. Common in Various Transactions: Escrow is used in many types of business transactions, especially those involving big, expensive purchases like real estate, online marketplaces or e-commerce sites. It can also be used in the sale of mobile app businesses or in the domain name market.


Escrow is a vital concept in the world of business and finance as it provides an added layer of security and trust in transactions, particularly in real estate deals, online sales, and various forms of contractual agreements. In an escrow arrangement, a trusted third party holds the assets (which could be money, securities, property, etc.) involved in a transaction until all agreed-upon terms and conditions have been met by the parties involved. This ensures that neither party is disadvantaged, protecting the buyer from the risk of the seller not delivering the promised goods or services and protecting the seller from the buyer not making the necessary payment. Thus, escrow serves as a guarantee that all parties will uphold their side of the bargain, creating an environment of trust and reliability in financial transactions.


Escrow serves as a financial arrangement where a third party holds and regulates payment of the funds required for two parties involved in a given transaction. It helps make transactions more secure by keeping the payment in a secure escrow account which is only released when all of the terms of an agreement are met as overseen by the escrow company. Escrows are very useful in the realm of real estate and online transactions where significant funds move between parties who, often, do not interact in person. The purpose of escrow is to foster trust between transactional parties and to protect the buyer’s funds until the transaction is completed to their satisfaction. For instance in a real estate transaction scenario, the buyer places their money for the house into an escrow account. These funds are then sealed away until every condition of the sale is satisfied, upon which the money gets transferred to the seller. Similarly, in online transactions, escrow ensures the product or service was delivered as expected before releasing payment to the seller. Therefore, escrow is a financial tool that safeguards transactions and minimizes risk for both buyer and seller.


1. Home Purchasing: One of the most common examples is during the buying and selling of a property. In real estate transactions, escrow accounts are opened as a means of protecting the funds of the buyer. The buyer places their money into the escrow account, which would be managed by a neutral third-party, usually an escrow agent. The funds in the escrow account are released to the seller once all conditions laid down in the purchase agreement are met.2. Online Transactions: Another example is found in e-commerce industries, specifically for online purchases. Companies like eBay use escrow accounts as an intermediatory between buyers and sellers. When a purchase is made, the buyer’s funds are initially placed into an escrow account. The funds are kept in the account until the buyer receives the product and is satisfied with their purchase. Only then are the funds released to the seller. This protects both the buyer and the seller from fraud.3. Construction Projects: Construction companies often use escrow accounts to ensure that contractors fulfill their obligations. The company would place the funds into an escrow account, and as the contractor reaches certain milestones or completes specific tasks, they receive a portion of the funds. This helps ensure the job is done to satisfaction while keeping the funds secure.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Escrow?

Escrow refers to a legal agreement where a third party, or escrow agent, holds an asset or funds before they are transferred from one party to another. The funds or assets are held by the escrow agent until it receives the appropriate instructions or until fulfilment of predetermined contractual obligations.

Why is Escrow used in financial transactions?

Escrow is used primarily to protect all parties in a transaction. It ensures that no funds or property will change hands until all conditions of the contract have been met.

How does an Escrow account work?

Once both parties agree to a transaction, money is placed into the escrow account. The funds will stay in the account until an escrow agent verifies that all terms of the contract have been fulfilled, after which the funds are released to the appropriate party.

Who can serve as an escrow agent?

An escrow agent is typically a neutral third party, like a lawyer or title company. They are responsible for ensuring that all terms of the contract are met before any money changes hands.

In what scenarios is Escrow most commonly used?

Escrow is often used in real estate transactions to hold the buyer’s payment until the seller meets all the terms of the deal. It is also commonly used in online transactions where the two parties don’t meet face-to-face.

Are there any fees involved with using an Escrow account?

Yes, typically the escrow service will charge a fee for holding the funds. This is usually a percentage of the total transaction amount, but it can also be a flat fee. The buyer and seller must agree on who pays this fee.

What happens if contractual obligations are not fulfilled in Escrow?

If the conditions of the contract are not met, the funds will stay in the escrow account. The escrow agent will not distribute the funds until all obligations are fulfilled or until the contract is cancelled. In case of disputes, legal interventions may be required to settle the matter.

Are funds in an escrow account protected?

Yes, funds in an escrow account are typically protected by insurance. It’s also worth noting that they are not subject to creditor claims against the debtor while in escrow.

Related Finance Terms

  • Escrow Account
  • Escrow Agent
  • Contingencies
  • Closing Process
  • Title Company

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