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In finance, equilibrium refers to a state where market supply and demand balance each other resulting in stable prices. It is the point at which the quantity demanded by buyers equals the quantity supplied by sellers. Therefore, no gains can be made from trade in the market, which leads to market efficiency.


The phonetic pronunciation of the keyword “Equilibrium” is: /ˌiːkwɪˈlɪbriəm/

Key Takeaways

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  1. Equilibrium refers to a state in which opposing forces or influences are balanced. In the context of economics, it is the point at which supply equals demand, resulting in an economic balance.
  2. There are two types of equilibrium – static and dynamic. Static equilibrium occurs when all factors remain constant, while dynamic equilibrium occurs when the forward and reverse processes occur at the same rate, despite changes in conditions.
  3. In physics, equilibrium is a crucial concept that deals with forces. Objects are in equilibrium if the net force acting on them is zero. Equilibrium can be categorized as stable, unstable, or neutral depending upon how the object behaves when disturbed.

“`Please note that these points are a general summary. The concept of “equilibrium” can vary significantly based on the field it is applied to.


Equilibrium, in business and finance, is significant because it denotes the point where market supply equals demand, creating stability in terms of prices and quantities. It reflects a balanced state in a market where there is no surplus or shortage and thus represents an optimal level of economic efficiency. This state allows for more accurate predictions regarding the performance of markets and industries. Furthermore, understanding equilibrium points are key for policymakers and businesses when planning strategies or in decision-making processes, as it helps to identify where demand is satisfied by supply, leading to stability and sustainability.


Equilibrium, as a concept, has significant application in the fields of finance and business, specifically in economics and market analysis. It primarily represents a state in which market supply and demand balance each other, and as a result, prices become stable. It’s used to analyze a wide variety of important business dynamics, such as pricing strategies, market competition, and consumer behavior, which deeply influence the operations and profitability of every business entity.The main purpose of understanding the concept of equilibrium is to predict market trends and to facilitate strategic planning. By analyzing equilibrium points, businesses and investors can gain insights regarding when to introduce new products to the market or when to adjust prices, among other crucial decisions. When price equilibrium is disrupted due to varying supply and demand, a market disequilibrium occurs, resulting in surplus or shortage. In this respect, the concept of equilibrium is also used to understand and manage disruptions in the market.


1. Stock Market: In the stock market, equilibrium is reached when the supply (selling orders) of a particular stock equals its demand (buying orders). When the number of investors wanting to buy a stock is equal to the number of those who want to sell it, then the price would remain stable, illustrating market equilibrium.2. Foreign Exchange Market: The point of equilibrium in a foreign exchange market is where the supply of a specific currency equals its demand. This determines the spot rate, the rate at which one currency can be exchanged for another. For example, if there’s a high demand for US dollars due to increased importation, but a low supply because of decreased exports, the value of the dollar might increase until there is enough balance between the supply and demand.3. Housing Market: Equilibrium in the housing real estate market is reached when the number of potential buyers matches the number of homes available for sale. If the supply of housing significantly exceeds the demand, house prices will go down until equilibrium is restored. Conversely, if there are more buyers than homes available, prices will rise until the numbers of buyers and sellers level out.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What does the term ‘Equilibrium’ mean in finance and business?

Equilibrium is a state of balance in a market or an economy where, at a certain price level, the supply of a good or service matches the demand. It is the point of intersection between the demand and supply curves and it represents a state of stability where there are no surpluses or shortages.

Is it possible for an economy or market to always be at equilibrium?

It’s a theoretical concept, and in reality, markets and economies are constantly moving in and out of equilibrium due to changing variables such as customer preferences, technology, or other external factors.

What happens when a market is not in equilibrium?

When a market is not in equilibrium, it means there’s a mismatch between demand and supply. If supply exceeds demand, prices will fall to induce more demand and move the market towards equilibrium. Conversely, if demand exceeds supply, prices will increase to reduce the demand, thus moving the market back to equilibrium.

What factors can disturb the equilibrium in a market?

Many factors can disturb market equilibrium, including changes in consumer tastes, shifts in the demand or supply curve due to changes in costs, technology, or other external factors, and policy changes from government.

How does equilibrium affect price and quantity in a market?

The price and quantity in a market are determined by the point of equilibrium. If the equilibrium shifts, due to changes in supply or demand, it will result in a change in price and quantity.

Is it correct to say that a market is at equilibrium when market supply equals market demand?

Yes. A market is at equilibrium when the quantity demanded equals the quantity supplied. At this point, the price at which the quantity demanded equals quantity supplied is the equilibrium price, and the quantity demanded and supplied at that price is the equilibrium quantity.

Can government intervention disturb market equilibrium?

Yes, government intervention in the form of taxes, subsidies, price controls, or regulations can disturb market equilibrium by causing shifts in the supply or demand curves.

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