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Enterprise-Value-to-Revenue Multiple (EV/R)


The Enterprise-Value-to-Revenue Multiple (EV/R) is a financial measurement ratio used to determine the value of a company. It compares the company’s enterprise value (market capitalization plus debt minus cash) to its total revenue. This metric is often used by investors and analysts to assess a company’s business performance and market valuation, especially within same-industry comparisons.


Enterprise-Value-to-Revenue Multiple Phonetics: En-ter-prize-Val-yoo-toh-rev-uh-noo Mul-teh-puhl (EV/R pronounced as E-V-slash-R)

Key Takeaways

  1. Definition and Application: The Enterprise-Value-to-Revenue Multiple (EV/R) is a financial metric used by investors to determine the value of a company. It compares the total value of a company (including debt and equity) to its revenue. The EV/R multiple is particularly useful in industries that have low profits or irregular profitability, and in valuing high-growth companies with no earnings.
  2. Interpretation: An EV/R multiple can be interpreted as the number of years it would take for the company to generate revenue equal to its valuation, assuming consistent revenues. A lower EV/R ratio suggests that a company might be undervalued, while a higher ratio might indicate that the company is overvalued.
  3. Limitations: While useful, the EV/R multiple has its limitations. It does not take into account the profitability or growth rate of a company, which can lead to misrepresentation of the company’s true value. Therefore, it is typically used in conjunction with other metrics for a more comprehensive evaluation of a company’s worth.


The Enterprise-Value-to-Revenue Multiple (EV/R) is a significant term in business and finance as it is a measure used to compare the value of a company, including debt and other liabilities, to the company’s total revenue. It’s a standard valuation tool that allows investors, analysts, or stakeholders to compare different companies within the same industry, which might have varied debt levels or structures. This measure can provide insights into how the market values the company’s revenue and it illustrates how much investors are willing to pay per dollar of revenue. Therefore, it can be particularly useful in understanding the appeal of companies with no earnings or profit, such as startups or other growth companies.


The Enterprise-Value-to-Revenue Multiple (EV/R) serves an integral purpose in business analysis, being one of the key ratios used to evaluate the value and performance of an organization. Essentially, it aids in determining the worth of a company in relation to its generated revenue. Investors and analysts use EV/R as a tool to facilitate comparisons across companies within the same industry, regardless of size. It provides a clear standpoint to make calculated decisions about the relative value of a company and ascertain whether it is under or overvalued.

Moreover, the EV/R is particularly useful in assessing firms in high-growth industries or those that are not yet profitable. For these types of companies, traditional valuation metrics such as price to earnings (P/E) ratios may not provide an accurate picture of the company’s value due to a lack of earnings. The EV/R multiple helps investors evaluate such companies by comparing the market’s valuation of a company to its actual revenue. Ultimately, this tool paints a more comprehensive overview of a company’s economic value compared to its revenue, helping investors make informed decisions.


Enterprise-Value-to-Revenue Multiple (EV/R) is a valuation measure that compares a company’s enterprise value to its annual revenue. It serves as an indication of how the market values each dollar of a company’s sale. Here are three real-world examples:

1. Amazon (AMZN) – A giant in the technology and e-commerce world, Amazon often has a high EV/R value given its significant enterprise value and revenue. For instance, as of September 30th, 2021, Amazon had an EV of approximately $1.77 trillion and its trailing 12-month revenue was about $443.28 billion, providing an EV/R ratio of approximately 4.

2. Ford Motor Company (F) – Ford, a major player in the automobile industry, provides another example. In its case, the company may have a lower EV/R multiple because of both the industry it operates in and various financial considerations. As of September 30th, 2021, Ford had an EV of approximately $168 billion with a trailing 12-month revenue of approximately $127 billion, which gives an EV/R ratio of about 1.32.

3. (CRM) – In the software industry, Salesforce offers a third example. Looking at data from October 2021, Salesforce had an EV of approximately $220 billion. The trailing 12-month revenue for the company was about $21.3 billion. Therefore, the EV/R ratio would be around 10.3. This higher ratio could be attributed to the industry’s growth rate and potential, and the market’s expectation of future revenue growth.

In each of these examples, the multiple reflects the different risks, growth rates and outcome expectations in each company’s respective industry. It’s important to note that having a higher or lower EV/R multiple isn’t necessarily good or bad – it’s more about what’s appropriate given a company’s specific circumstances, industry and what’s already priced into the company’s stock.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Enterprise-Value-to-Revenue Multiple (EV/R)?

EV/R, also known as Enterprise Value-to-Revenue Multiple, is a financial ratio that measures the total value of a company, including debt and equity, in relation to its revenue. It’s often used to evaluate the relative value of a company.

How is the EV/R multiple calculated?

The EV/R multiple is calculated by dividing the enterprise value (EV) of a company by its annual revenue. Enterprise value is calculated by adding a corporation’s market capitalization, debt, and minority interest, less total cash and cash equivalents.

What does the value of EV/R multiple signify?

A high EV/R implies that a company is overvalued or its revenue generation is low. Conversely, a low EV/R indicates that a company might be undervalued or its revenue generation is strong.

Can we use the EV/R multiple across different industries?

Yes, but with caution. While EV/R can be used for cross-industry comparisons, one should always consider industry norms and growth prospects as multiples can vary significantly across industries meaning a good EV/R ratio in one industry might not be considered good in another.

Does a low EV/R always signify a good investment opportunity?

Not necessarily. A low EV/R can indicate that a company is undervalued, which might be a signal of a good investment. However, the low multiple could also be due to low growth prospects, high risks or inefficiencies in the company. Therefore, it’s essential to consider other factors and metrics when making an investment decision.

How does the EV/R multiple compare to other valuation multiples like P/E or EV/EBITDA?

While similar in concept, EV/R, P/E (Price to Earnings), and EV/EBITDA (Enterprise Value to Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization) operate on different financial parameters. While P/E uses net income in the denominator, EV/EBITDA uses EBITDA and EV/R uses revenue. Therefore, each serves best in different scenarios as per the financial condition and industry pattern of the company.

Related Finance Terms

  • Enterprise Value (EV): This refers to a measurement of a company’s total value. It takes into account a firm’s market capitalization and debt, along with its cash reserves.
  • Revenue: This refers to the total income generated by the sale of goods or services. It’s a fundamental measure of business performance and profitability.
  • Valuation Multiples: These are financial measurement tools that compare a company’s financial performance to its peers or market standard.
  • EBITDA: Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization. This is a metric that’s often used in conjunction with EV in valuation techniques.
  • Price-to-Sales Ratio (P/S): A similar concept to the EV/R, the Price-to-Sales Ratio is a valuation metric that compares a company’s stock price to its revenue per share.

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