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Endogenous Variable


An endogenous variable is a classification used in econometric studies where such variable is influenced, or caused by factors within the model. In other words, it is a variable whose value is determined by the equation within the system or model under study. It stands in contrast to an exogenous variable, which is considered as external to the model.


The phonetics for the keyword “Endogenous Variable” would be: æn-də-ˈjɛ-nəs ˈvɛərɪəbəl

Key Takeaways

1. Endogenous Variables Definition: An endogenous variable is a classification of variables used in economic or statistical modeling. Endogenous variables are the outcome of the processes within the model, affected by other variables in the model.2. Endogenous Variables and External Factors: Endogenous variables do not depend on external factors. Changes in these variables are due to the internal mechanics of the model, meaning they are determined within the system the model represents.3. Usage in Different Models: They are integral in various types of models, including economic, statistical, mathematical, and financial. These variables enable the formulation of equations that provide insightful predictions and analyses.


An endogenous variable is important in business and finance because it allows for a more comprehensive analysis of economic models. These variables, which depend on other factors within the model and can change in response to them, provide insight into the internal interactions of the system. Their values are determined within the system based on the relationships of cause and effect, thereby allowing analysts to understand how shifts in certain variables affect others. This in-depth understanding is crucial in decision-making processes, economic forecasts, and policy-making scenarios, enabling businesses and financial institutions to predict and strategize their actions more effectively.


The key purpose of an endogenous variable in finance or business is to assist in elucidating internal factors that impact an economic or financial model. They are the outputs or results that are influenced by other variables within the model. Endogenous variables are used to illustrate the relationship between factors within the business, industry, or economic system by providing a measurable and quantifiable representation of possible internal changes.

Endogenous variables, also known as dependent variables, are crucial in econometrics and other economic models as they can enhance our comprehension of the complex interactions within an economic ecosystem, used for prediction and policy prescriptions. They are employed in conducting business analyses, forecasting, risk management, and strategic planning. By analyzing the interplay of endogenous variables with exogenous (external) variables, analysts and policymakers can gain valuable insights into trends, potential challenges, and strategic opportunities.


1. Consumer Spending: In an economic model, consumer spending could be considered an endogenous variable as it is determined or influenced within the model itself. Various factors such as income, interest rates, consumer confidence, and inflation can directly impact consumer spending, making it endogenous.

2. GDP Growth Rate: The Gross Domestic Product or GDP growth rate of a country is also an endogenous variable. It is affected from within the country’s economic system by factors like government policy, consumption, investment, and net exports.

3. Interest Rates: In financial models, interest rates are often treated as endogenous variables. They are determined by factors within the system such as monetary policy, inflation rates, and economic growth. Central banks’ decisions can also affect the interest rates in the economy.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is an Endogenous Variable?

An endogenous variable is a classification of variables generated within a statistical model or a financial model. It’s often influenced by how model parameters respond to variables within the model, making changes to it endogenous or internal to the model.

Can you provide an example of an Endogenous Variable?

Yes, in economics, one common example of an endogenous variable is income. That’s because income can influence other variables in the model, such as consumer expenditure, while it can also be influenced by other factors within the model, like working hours or education level.

How do Endogenous Variables differ from Exogenous Variables?

Endogenous variables are primarily influenced by factors within the model, while exogenous variables are affected by influences outside the model. In other words, endogenous variables may change based on elements from within the system, whereas exogenous ones are independent and their value changes are external.

Why are Endogenous Variables important in financial modeling?

Endogenous variables are crucial because they help analysts and economists understand the internal dynamics of economic and financial models. By adjusting endogenous variables, they can study the potential effects on different parts of the model.

What is Endogeneity problem in econometrics?

The endogeneity problem is a common issue in regression analysis in econometrics, where an explanatory variable is correlated with the error term. It can lead to biased or inconsistent parameter estimates.

How can we solve the problem of endogeneity?

Different methods can be used to address endogeneity, like Instrumental Variable (IV) methods, panel data methods, or Heckman correction method. Different types of models require different approaches.

Can all variables be classified as either endogenous or exogenous?

In theory, yes. However, it’s worth noting that the classification of particular variables can be complex and depend heavily upon the specific model and the way it has been constructed. Some variables may be treated as exogenous in one model, yet endogenous in another.

Related Finance Terms

  • Exogenous Variable: This is the direct opposite of an endogenous variable. In a model, it’s a variable assumed to not depend on the state of other variables in the system.
  • Dependent Variable: Also known as an endogenous variable, it depends on the values of other variables in the model.
  • Econometric Model: This is the statistical models used in economics to test hypotheses using real-world data. Endogenous variables are often used within these models.
  • Simultaneous Equations: In econometrics, a system where multiple equations are solved together. Endogenous variables are often found in such systems.
  • Instrumental Variable: Used in econometric analysis to help deal with endogenous variables that are correlated with the error term in the model.

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