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Endogenous Growth Theory


Endogenous Growth Theory is an economic theory which proposes that investment in human capital, innovation, and knowledge are significant contributors to economic growth. It contrasts with exogenous growth theory, which poscribes that economic growth primarily arises due to influences outside the economy or company. Essentially, it argues that economic growth is largely a result of internal factors.


Endogenous Growth Theory in phonetics is: /ɛnˈdɒdʒɪnəs ɡroʊθ ˈθɪəri/

Key Takeaways

  1. Endogenous Growth Theory emphasizes the role of internal factors: This theory argues that economic growth is primarily a result of internal factors, such as human capital and innovation, rather than external influences. It proposes that investment in human capital, innovation, and knowledge are significant contributors to economic growth.
  2. Constant returns and long-term economic growth: Unlike other economic theories, Endogenous Growth Theory suggests constant returns to scale which allows for sustained long-term economic growth. This happens through the constant investment in human capital, research, and development.
  3. Policy implications: Based on this theory, government policies should focus on providing incentives for knowledge creation and innovation. This could include policies related to education, research and development subsidies, and laws pertaining to intellectual property rights.


Endogenous Growth Theory is a crucial concept in business and finance as it provides insight into long-term economic growth within the framework of knowledge and innovation. Unlike exogenous growth theories, which emphasize external factors in economic growth such as technology advancements, this theory posits that growth is stimulated primarily from internal factors like policy measures, human capital, market competition, and research and development. This perspective is particularly significant in guiding policy-making and strategic decisions within a firm or an economy. By understanding the key drivers of growth as identified by the endogenous growth theory, businesses and economies can focus their efforts on enhancing those internal factors, fostering a sustainable and continuous growth trajectory.


Endogenous Growth Theory primarily serves as a conceptual framework to explain long-term economic growth or development. It posits that growth is primarily generated from within a system through investments in human capital, innovation, and knowledge, rather than outside sources or factors, which distinguishes it from other economic growth theories. Essentially, the purpose of the Endogenous Growth Theory is to highlight the important internal processes, especially those related to knowledge creation and innovation, that drive a country’s economic development and growth over time.

In practical applications, Endogenous Growth Theory is used by economists, policy makers, researchers and businesses to inform developmental strategies and policies. Particularly, the theory’s focus on knowledge and human capital development has implications for education, innovation and research, and development policies. Companies use this theory to invest in research and development (R&D) and human capital to drive their growth. Similarly, governments can use this theory to make strategic investments in education, R&D, and infrastructure to foster an environment conducive to promote long-term, sustainable economic growth.


1. Silicon Valley: This iconic region known for its tech companies is an excellent example of Endogenous Growth Theory. The concentration of companies like Apple, Google, and Facebook has created a constant cycle of innovation and productivity growth. As these companies grow, they invest heavily in R&D, human capital, and new technologies which drive further growth.

2. China’s Economic Growth: China’s rapid economic growth is largely due to its focus on internal capacity building, investing heavily in education, technology advancement, infrastructure development, and capital deepening. This prioritized endogenous factors to stimulate sustained long-term economic growth, following the premise of Endogenous Growth Theory.

3. Germany’s Automotive Industry: Germany has been a global leader in the automotive industry for decades, with brands like Mercedes-Benz, BMW and Audi. The industry’s continuous investment in skills development, technology upgrades, and innovation is a prime example of the Endogenous Growth Theory. Germany’s emphasis on a well-educated and highly-skilled workforce, combined with a stress on technological advancement, helped to create a strong positive feedback loop that led to further growth and innovation.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is the definition of Endogenous Growth Theory?

Endogenous Growth Theory is an economic theory which posits that economic growth is primarily influenced by factors within the system such as human capital, innovation, and knowledge, rather than external influences.

What are the key components of Endogenous Growth Theory?

The key components of Endogenous Growth Theory include factors like investment in human capital, innovation, and knowledge. These areas are considered as primary drivers that stimulate economic growth from within an economy, as opposed to external shocks.

Who are the main contributors to the Endogenous Growth Theory?

The Endogenous Growth Theory was elaborated by economists such as Robert Lucas, Paul Romer, and Robert Barro.

How does Endogenous Growth Theory differ from Exogenous Growth Theory?

While the Exogenous Growth Theory postulates that economic growth is largely influenced by technological advancements and population growth which are external elements, the Endogenous Growth Theory insists that internal factors such as human capital, innovation, and knowledge are significant drivers of economic growth.

How does human capital contribute to Endogenous Growth Theory?

According to Endogenous Growth Theory, investment in human capital – like education and health – promotes economic growth by enhancing the quality of labor, which in turn leads to productivity improvements and innovation.

What role does innovation play in Endogenous Growth Theory?

In Endogenous Growth Theory, innovation is seen as a critical factor that stimulates economic growth. This includes not only technological innovation but also procedural and organizational innovation that can lead to increased productivity.

What is the relevance of Endogenous Growth Theory to today’s economy?

The theory underscores the importance of investment in areas such as education, training, research, and infrastructure. These are seen as key to stimulating productivity and innovation, which can lead to sustainable economic growth.

How is the Endogenous Growth Theory applied in policymaking?

Policymakers can use the Endogenous Growth Theory to prioritize investments in education, research and development, and other internal factors that can stimulate long-term, sustainable economic growth.

Can Endogenous Growth Theory explain all economic growth?

While Endogenous Growth Theory provides a framework for understanding how internal factors can promote economic growth, it is not the only theory. There are other theories, such as Neoclassical Growth Theory and Exogenous Growth Theory, that also provide useful insights into the drivers of economic growth.

Related Finance Terms

  • Capital Accumulation
  • Technological Progress
  • Human Capital Development
  • Innovation and Knowledge
  • Productivity Growth

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