Close this search box.

Table of Contents

Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)


Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is a financial concept used in inventory management that determines the optimal order quantity or batch size to minimize total inventory costs. These costs include holding or carrying costs and ordering or setup costs. EOQ balances these two costs to achieve the most cost-efficient inventory management strategy.


Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) in phonetics can be transcribed as: /ɪˌkɒnəmɪk ˈɔːrdər ˈkwɒntɪti/.

Key Takeaways

  1. The Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is a formula used to determine the most cost-effective quantity of items to order at a given time, taking into account ordering costs and holding costs.
  2. EOQ is based on three main variables: demand rate, ordering cost, and carrying costs. These variables help companies balance the cost of ordering inventory with the cost of holding it.
  3. By using the EOQ model, businesses can minimize total costs, optimize inventory levels, and avoid stockouts or excess inventory, thus improving overall operational efficiency.


Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is a crucial concept in business and finance as it helps organizations strike the right balance between maintaining adequate inventory levels and minimizing holding costs. By calculating the optimal order quantity, companies can efficiently manage their inventory, avoid stockouts, reduce excess inventory and storage expenses, and improve cash flow. EOQ allows businesses to maintain an uninterrupted supply of goods while keeping costs under control, which ultimately leads to higher profitability and enhanced competitiveness in the market. With an effective understanding and implementation of EOQ, companies can optimize their supply chain management and achieve better financial performance.


Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is a vital concept in inventory management, as it assists businesses in optimizing their order sizes to minimize operational costs and maintain adequate stock levels. The purpose of EOQ is to find the most cost-effective order quantity, striking a balance between stock holding costs and ordering costs. By identifying the optimal order size, organizations can avoid excess inventory, reduce stock-outs, and maintain efficient cash flow. Essentially, EOQ serves as a crucial tool in maximizing cost-efficiency and ensuring a consistent supply of goods for any business involved in the purchase, production, or sale of products. EOQ is extensively used by companies across various industries, ranging from retail to manufacturing. By calculating the EOQ, businesses gain valuable insight that helps them make informed decisions regarding their procurement strategies and inventory control. This, in turn, helps in reducing costs associated with excessive inventory, spoilage, obsolescence, and stockouts. Moreover, the EOQ formula considers factors such as demand, ordering costs, and holding costs, allowing businesses to tailor the model to their unique circumstances, thereby enhancing overall operational efficiency. In summary, the Economic Order Quantity plays an instrumental role in the financial health of a company by promoting effective inventory management practices and streamlining the procurement process.


Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is a formula used to determine the optimal order quantity that minimizes the total inventory costs, including ordering and holding costs. Here are three real-world examples of EOQ in business and finance: 1. Retail Clothing Store: A clothing store is trying to determine the optimal quantity of a particular type of jeans to order. They want to balance ordering and holding them in inventory, while still meeting customer demand. By using the EOQ formula, they can find the ideal number of jeans to order, keeping inventory levels manageable and minimizing the combined costs of order and holding expenses. 2. Automotive Manufacturing Company: A car manufacturing company needs to order a specific type of component, such as steering wheels, from a supplier. They need to calculate the EOQ to find the optimal number of steering wheels to order to meet production needs without tying up capital in excess inventory or increasing ordering costs. By using EOQ, the company can optimize the cost of inventory management and ensure a continuous supply of components for the production process. 3. Wholesale Food Distributor: A wholesale food distributor needs to determine the optimal order quantity for perishable goods, such as fruits and vegetables, to minimize inventory spoilage and ordering costs. They can use the EOQ formula to find the ideal order quantity that balances inventory holding costs, including storage and spoilage, with the costs associated with placing and processing orders. This helps the company maintain a consistent supply of goods while keeping inventory management costs at an optimal level.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What is Economic Order Quantity (EOQ)?
Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) is a financial and inventory management formula that determines the optimal quantity of items a company should order to minimize costs associated with ordering, holding, and stockouts. It helps businesses strike a balance between inventory holding costs and order costs, maximizing efficiency and minimizing operational costs.
How is EOQ calculated?
The EOQ formula is as follows:EOQ = √(2DS/H)Where:D = Demand in units per period (e.g., annually)S = Ordering cost (cost of placing an order, such as labor and shipping)H = Holding cost per unit per period (costs associated with storing items, such as warehouse rent and insurance)
What are the benefits of using EOQ?
The primary benefits of using EOQ include more accurate inventory management, reduced ordering and holding costs, stockout prevention, and improved cash flow management. It ensures that businesses maintain an optimal level of inventory without overstocking or running out of stock, helping companies save money and operate more efficiently.
Are there limitations to using EOQ?
Yes, there are limitations to using EOQ. Some of these include assumptions of constant demand, fixed ordering and holding costs, and a consistent lead time. Companies dealing with fluctuating demand, perishable goods, or multiple products with different characteristics may find the EOQ formula less accurate or harder to implement.
How can companies use EOQ in their inventory management strategy?
Companies can incorporate EOQ into their inventory management systems by determining the EOQ for each product they stock. This information guides purchasing decisions and helps set order points and reorder quantities. Businesses may need to adjust their EOQ calculations over time to account for changes in demand and cost factors.
Can EOQ be used for businesses with multiple warehouse locations?
Yes, EOQ can be applied in situations where a business has multiple warehouse locations. In this case, EOQ is calculated for each individual warehouse, considering the specific demand, holding costs, and ordering costs for each location.

Related Finance Terms

Sources for More Information

About Due

Due makes it easier to retire on your terms. We give you a realistic view on exactly where you’re at financially so when you retire you know how much money you’ll get each month. Get started today.

Due Fact-Checking Standards and Processes

To ensure we’re putting out the highest content standards, we sought out the help of certified financial experts and accredited individuals to verify our advice. We also rely on them for the most up to date information and data to make sure our in-depth research has the facts right, for today… Not yesterday. Our financial expert review board allows our readers to not only trust the information they are reading but to act on it as well. Most of our authors are CFP (Certified Financial Planners) or CRPC (Chartered Retirement Planning Counselor) certified and all have college degrees. Learn more about annuities, retirement advice and take the correct steps towards financial freedom and knowing exactly where you stand today. Learn everything about our top-notch financial expert reviews below… Learn More