Close this search box.

Table of Contents

Chi Square Statistic


The Chi Square Statistic is a statistical measure used in hypothesis testing to determine if there’s a significant difference between observed and expected frequencies in one or more categories. It is commonly used in non-parametric tests where the variables are not assumed to follow a specific distribution. It forms the basis for popular tests like the chi-square test for independence or the chi-square goodness-of-fit test.


The phonetics of the keyword “Chi Square Statistic” is: kai skwehr stuh-tis-tik.

Key Takeaways

  1. Test of Independence: The Chi Square statistic is commonly used in hypothesis testing, particularly for tests of independence. This means the statistic can help determine if there is a significant association between two categorical variables in a sample.
  2. Distribution: The Chi Square statistic follows a Chi Square distribution, which is a family of curves that are different depending on the degrees of freedom involved. It is important to note that it is always positive, as it’s derived from squaring certain quantities.
  3. Assumptions: The Chi Square test requires certain assumptions to be met. For instance, observations should be independently and randomly sampled, categories must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive, and there should be an adequate expected frequency (usually at least 5) in each category.


The Chi Square Statistic is notably significant in business and finance, as it plays a critical role in improving decision-making tactics. This statistical tool is chiefly used to determine whether there is a significant association between two categorical variables. For instance, it can be used to analyze the correlation between the gender of consumers and their buying behavior. This valuable information can help businesses identify and understand their target demographics better, strategize their marketing and sales approach, and optimize their product or service delivery. Furthermore, it also aids in risk measurement and management, product improvement, and market research by helping organizations validate their hypotheses regarding various market trends or customer behaviors.


The Chi-Square Statistic serves a critical purpose in the field of finance, business, and research, where decision making often relies on the analysis of trends or patterns in categorical data. Its key purpose is to measure how much a set of observed frequency data diverges from theoretical expectations or, simply put, to test the significance of variances between observed and expected frequencies in one or more categories. It offers a quantitative approach to determine if differences between observed and expected outcomes are simply due to random error (chance) or if they reflect fundamental deviations from the theoretical distribution, implying a significant effect.Businesses use Chi-Square Statistic for various types of scenario analysis, contingency table analysis (cross-tabbing), and hypothesis testing which often forms part of market research, quality control, or risk modelling. For example, a marketer might use it to determine if ad placement significantly affects customer behavior, a product manager might use it to see if defects occur randomly or are related to specific factors, or a risk analyst could use it to test the independence of risk factors. In all such uses, the Chi-Square Statistic provides a robust and mathematically sound mechanism to make informed decisions by assessing the likelihood of observed data given a particular theoretical expectation.


1. Market Research: A company might use the Chi Square Statistic in a market research study to understand consumer behavior. For example, a company that produces soft drinks might want to understand if there is an association between the age group of their consumers (under 18, 18-25, 26-35, 36 and above) and their preference for a specific type of drink (cola, orange, lemon-lime, root beer). Chi Square Statistic can be applied to determine the existence of this association. 2. Credit Risk Analysis: Financial institutions often use the Chi Square Statistic to assess the credit risk by studying the relationship between different variables such as income level, employment type, and loan repayment. For instance, a bank may want to affirm a presumed relationship that full-time employees are more likely to repay loans promptly than part-time employees. The Chi Square statistic is useful in validating this hypothesis. 3. Employee Satisfaction: Human Resource departments also often use the Chi Square Statistic to assess the satisfaction levels of different groups within an organization. For example, a company may want to test if the level of education (high school, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, doctorate) of their employees influences job satisfaction. Using Chi Square Statistic, HR can confirm whether the level of education an employee holds has a significant impact on their job satisfaction or not.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What Is the Chi Square Statistic?
The Chi Square Statistic is a tool that is used in statistics to test the independence of two events. In the context of finance and business, it’s often used to determine if different variables or categories of data are independent or if they’re related in some way.
How is the Chi Square Statistic used in finance and business?
In finance and business, the Chi Square Statistic is used to analyse categorical data. For instance, it can be used to see if there’s a significant difference between the expected frequencies and the observed frequencies in one or more categories of a contingency table.
How Do You Calculate a Chi Square Statistic?
The Chi Square Statistic is calculated as the sum of the squared difference between observed (O) and the expected (E) data (or the deviation, d), divided by the expected data in all possible categories. It’s usually represented as X² = Σ [ (O-E)² / E ].
What Does a Significant Chi Square Statistic Tell Us?
A significant Chi Square Statistic means there’s a significant difference between the expected results and the observed results. In other words, it indicates that the observed data does not fit with the expected data and there may be an underlying relationship present.
How is Chi Square Statistic Interpreted in Hypothesis Testing?
In hypothesis testing, a low Chi Square value supports the null hypothesis that the observed results match the expected results. A high Chi Square value supports the alternative hypothesis that the observed and expected values are significantly different.
Can Chi Square be Used for Large Sample Sizes?
Yes, the Chi Square test can be accurately used for large sample sizes. However, it’s important to note that as the sample size decreases, the accuracy of the Chi Square value also decreases.
What Are The Assumptions of Chi square test?
The main assumptions include: Data used should be random, the variables under consideration should be mutually exclusive and exhaustive, and the level of measurement should be nominal or ordinal. It’s also assumed that the expected frequency of each cell is at least 5.
What are the Limitations of Chi Square Statistic?
The limitations of the Chi Square Statistic include that it cannot be used for numerical data or when comparing more than two variables. It also can’t ascertain the strength of the relationship, just the existence of it. Plus, it assumes that the sample accurately represents the population.

Related Finance Terms

Sources for More Information

About Due

Due makes it easier to retire on your terms. We give you a realistic view on exactly where you’re at financially so when you retire you know how much money you’ll get each month. Get started today.

Due Fact-Checking Standards and Processes

To ensure we’re putting out the highest content standards, we sought out the help of certified financial experts and accredited individuals to verify our advice. We also rely on them for the most up to date information and data to make sure our in-depth research has the facts right, for today… Not yesterday. Our financial expert review board allows our readers to not only trust the information they are reading but to act on it as well. Most of our authors are CFP (Certified Financial Planners) or CRPC (Chartered Retirement Planning Counselor) certified and all have college degrees. Learn more about annuities, retirement advice and take the correct steps towards financial freedom and knowing exactly where you stand today. Learn everything about our top-notch financial expert reviews below… Learn More