Close this search box.

Table of Contents

Brazil, Russia, India and China (BRIC)


BRIC is an acronym referring to the economies of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, which are considered significant emerging markets. First coined in 2001 by then-chairman of Goldman Sachs Asset Management, Jim O’Neill, the term suggests that these four countries have the potential to form an influential economic bloc. They’re characterized by their large, fast-growing economies and significant influence on regional and global affairs.


Brazil: /brəˈzɪl/Russia: /ˈrʌʃə/India: /ˈɪndiə/China: /ˈchaɪnə/BRIC: /brɪk/

Key Takeaways


  1. Brazil: Known for its plentiful natural resources, Brazil has one of the largest economies in the world. It has a diverse culture heavily influenced by Portuguese colonization, native groups, African slaves, and immigrant communities. Despite its economic strength, Brazil is still battling issues such as income inequality and deforestation.
  2. Russia: Largely a market economy, Russia operates on a vast amount of natural resources including oil, gas, and precious metals. It possesses one of the world’s most capable military forces. However, factors like a highly centralized power structure and international sanctions pose significant challenges to its growth.
  3. India: With the world’s second-largest population, India’s economy is marked by a mix of traditional farming and modern industries. It is known for its information technology sector and substantial English-speaking population, which has enabled it to become a major outsourcing destination for many global companies. Yet, it struggles with challenges such as poverty, pollution and inadequate public healthcare.
  4. China: China is the world’s most populated nation and one of the fastest-growing major economies. It is a global hub for manufacturing and is the largest trading nation in the world. While the Chinese economy has maintained strong growth, the country faces serious environmental issues, a rapidly aging population, and a strict political regime.



The term BRIC, an acronym for Brazil, Russia, India, and China, is significant as it represents the four rapidly growing developing economies with vast potential for development and investment opportunities. The term, coined by Jim O’Neill from Goldman Sachs, indicates a shift in global economic power away from traditional G7 economies towards the developing world. The BRIC countries have been projected to become the world’s dominant suppliers of manufactured goods, services, and raw materials by 2050 due to their increasing influence and significant growth rates. Additionally, they possess over 40% of the world’s population and a combined GDP of approximately 25% of the global total, making them a crucial part of the world economy. Thus, BRIC, as a concept, underscores the critical role these countries play in the global economic landscape.


The BRIC acronym represents the emerging markets of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, highlighting their growth potential and significance in the global economic scenario. Conceived at the dawn of the 21st century by Goldman Sachs analyst Jim O’Neill, the BRIC categorization serves as a robust framework to identify and track economies set for rapid expansion. The countries grouped under this term – with their burgeoning population and talents, strategic geopolitical significance, and promising investment opportunities – warranted a separate identifier that signified their potential rise as the world’s dominant suppliers of manufactured goods, services, and raw materials.The purpose and usage of the BRIC extend beyond merely tagging a set of growing economies. Strategists, economists, and investors rely on the BRIC framework to understand and anticipate the transitioning global economic landscape, foreseeing major growth trends and areas of opportunity. Simultaneously, it assists in more exact risk management by diversifying investments across an array of economies instead of concentrating on traditional markets. Furthermore, by singling out these countries, BRIC amplifies their profile and recognition in the global forum, likely attracting more foreign direct investment (FDI). It also encourages these nations to engage more effectively with each other, capitalize on shared strengths, and address common challenges – thereby perpetuating their growth and contributing significantly to global economic evolution.


1. Goldman Sachs Report (2001): In 2001, a report from Goldman Sachs titled “Building Better Global Economic BRICs” first used the acronym BRIC, conceptualizing Brazil, Russia, India, and China as emerging powerhouse economies that will dominate the world by 2050. This recognition demonstrated a paradigm shift in global economic power from developed G7 economies towards the developing world.2. Investment Opportunities: Many international investors target BRIC countries for their appealing growth rates, vast consumer bases, and increasing political power. For instance, in 2010, American fast-food chains like McDonald’s and Starbucks significantly expanded their operations in these countries, especially China and Russia, due to their growing middle class with disposable income. 3. Formation of BRICS Bank: In 2014, the BRIC countries, including South Africa (thus becoming BRICS), established the New Development Bank (NDB). The Shanghai-based bank’s primary focus is to lend money for infrastructure projects, demonstrating these nations’ shared economic and political goals as a unified entity in the global economy.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

What does BRIC stand for?

BRIC is an acronym that stands for Brazil, Russia, India, and China. These countries are grouped together because they are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.

When was the term BRIC first used?

The term was first coined in 2001 by Jim O’Neill, a British economist at Goldman Sachs.

Why are BRIC countries important in global economics?

BRIC countries are among the fastest-growing economies in the world and represent a significant share of the world’s economic growth, population, and resources. As such, they play a significant role in global economics and are expected to become dominant suppliers of manufactured goods, services, and raw materials in the future.

What criteria define a BRIC country?

The BRIC countries are defined by their large, rapidly growing economies and significant influence on regional and global affairs. All four nations are also members of the G20.

How are BRIC countries impacting the global business landscape?

As BRIC economies continue to grow and develop, they are creating new opportunities for international trade and investment. This growth is influencing worldwide economic trends, altering the dynamics of global business and finance.

Are BRIC countries part of any political or economic alliance?

Yes, BRIC countries formed an association known as BRICS with the addition of South Africa in 2010 to represent the nations. They meet annually for a formal summit.

What challenges does the BRIC economies face?

Despite their rapid growth, BRIC economies face several challenges, including reducing economic disparities among their populations, transitioning from resource-driven growth, dealing with corruption, and developing sustainable financial markets.

Are all BRIC economies performing at the same level?

No, the economic performances of BRIC countries are not uniform. While all four economies have experienced substantial growth in the past two decades, the pace and scale of this growth have varied significantly between them.

How can businesses benefit from BRIC economies?

Businesses can access new markets, take advantage of lower production costs, and benefit from the immense consumer base represented by the BRIC countries. This access however may come coupled with navigating through different regulatory landscapes and coping with infrastructure challenges.Please note that the specific opportunities and challenges may vary depending on the specific BRIC country and business sector.

Related Finance Terms

  • Emerging Markets: This term refers to countries that have some characteristics of a developed market and are in the process of further growth and development. Brazil, Russia, India, and China fall into this category.
  • BRICS: This is an acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
  • Jim O’Neill: The British economist who coined the term “BRIC” in 2001 while he was chairman of Goldman Sachs Asset Management.
  • The New Silk Road: This is a part of China’s economic foreign policy, where it’s investing in infrastructure and creating routes for not just goods, but ideas, services, and talent across Asia to Europe, essentially creating a modern version of the Silk Road. It affects BRIC countries as China is a key player.
  • Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) Development Bank: This bank was established by the BRICS countries in 2014 as an alternative to the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, giving these nations more influence in the global economy.

Sources for More Information

About Due

Due makes it easier to retire on your terms. We give you a realistic view on exactly where you’re at financially so when you retire you know how much money you’ll get each month. Get started today.

Due Fact-Checking Standards and Processes

To ensure we’re putting out the highest content standards, we sought out the help of certified financial experts and accredited individuals to verify our advice. We also rely on them for the most up to date information and data to make sure our in-depth research has the facts right, for today… Not yesterday. Our financial expert review board allows our readers to not only trust the information they are reading but to act on it as well. Most of our authors are CFP (Certified Financial Planners) or CRPC (Chartered Retirement Planning Counselor) certified and all have college degrees. Learn more about annuities, retirement advice and take the correct steps towards financial freedom and knowing exactly where you stand today. Learn everything about our top-notch financial expert reviews below… Learn More